The role of fullerene derivatives in perovskite solar cells: electron transporting or electron extraction layers?
The synthesis, characterization and incorporation of fullerene derivatives bearing primary, secondary and tertiary nitrogen atoms, which possess different basicities, in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), is reported. In this work, we tested the compounds as conventional electron transporting materials (ETMs) in a single layer with phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC 61 BM) as control. Additionally, we tested the idea of separating the ETM into two different layers: a thin electron extracting layer (EEL) at the interface with the perovskite, and an electron transporting layer (ETL) to transport the electrons to the Ag electrode. The compounds in this work weremore »