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Title: Topological nonlinear σ -model, higher gauge theory, and a systematic construction of 3+1D topological orders for boson systems
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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Date Published:
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. The noncentrosymmetric Weyl semimetal PtBi2−x (t-PtBi2−x) exhibits various interesting technologically important physical properties. We report the experimental investigation of PtBi1.6 via second harmonic generation (SHG), single-crystal x-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical resistivity measurements. While bulk structural, magnetic, and electrical properties show no phase transitions below room temperature, the temperature dependence of the SHG intensity reveals two anomalies: one at T ∗ ∼ 60 K and another at Tx ∼ 200 K. Quantitative analysis indicates that the SHG signal results from both the buckled Bi1 surface termination with the 3m symmetry and flat Bi2 surface termination with the m symmetry. However, the anomalies are mainly driven by Bi1 on the surface: (1) T ∗ marks the onset of surface states which is also manifested in the c-axis resistivity drop and (2) Tx corresponds to the lowest thermal contraction of the structure and enhanced magnetic susceptibility. This study demonstrates that SHG is a powerful technique for probing surface properties even for noncentrosymmetric materials. 
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