skip to main content

Title: LYCODON ALCALAI (Alcala’s Wolf Snake). DIET.
Lycodon alcalai is a small, terrestrial snake endemic to the northern Philippines where it is known from the islands of Batan (70 km2), Sabtang (16 km2), and Calayan (196 km2; Ota and Ross 1994. Copeia 1994:159–174; Oliveros et al. 2011. Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kans. 43:1–20). Although L. alcalai has been reported to prey upon Common Tree Frogs (Polypedates leucomystax) and unidentified, soft-shelled reptilian eggs (Ota and Ross 1994, op. cit.), little natural history information is available for this species. Here, we report on a new diet item for L. alcalai: an as of yet undescribed species of scaly-toed gecko (Lepidodactylus).
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1657648
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10161891
Journal Name:
Herpetological review
Volume:
50
Issue:
3
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
595
ISSN:
0018-084X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. High sea ice production (SIP) generates high-salinity water, thus, influencing the global thermohaline circulation. Estimation from passive microwave data and heat flux models have indicated that the Ross Ice Shelf polynya (RISP) may be the highest SIP region in the Southern Oceans. However, the coarse spatial resolution of passive microwave data limited the accuracy of these estimates. The Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar dataset with high spatial and temporal resolution provides an unprecedented opportunity to more accurately distinguish both polynya area/extent and occurrence. In this study, the SIPs of RISP and McMurdo Sound polynya (MSP) from 1 March–30 November 2017 and 2018 are calculated based on Sentinel-1 SAR data (for area/extent) and AMSR2 data (for ice thickness). The results show that the wind-driven polynyas in these two years occurred from the middle of March to the middle of November, and the occurrence frequency in 2017 was 90, less than 114 in 2018. However, the annual mean cumulative SIP area and volume in 2017 were similar to (or slightly larger than) those in 2018. The average annual cumulative polynya area and ice volume of these two years were 1,040,213 km2 and 184 km3 for the RSIP, and 90,505 km2 and 16 km3more »for the MSP, respectively. This annual cumulative SIP (volume) is only 1/3–2/3 of those obtained using the previous methods, implying that ice production in the Ross Sea might have been significantly overestimated in the past and deserves further investigations.« less
  2. Abstract. Landfast sea ice (fast ice) is an important though poorly understood component of the cryosphere on the Antarctic continental shelf, where it plays a key role in atmosphere–ocean–ice-sheet interaction and coupled ecological and biogeochemical processes. Here, we present a first in-depth baseline analysis of variability and change in circum-Antarctic fast-ice distribution (including its relationship to bathymetry), based on a new high-resolution satellite-derived time series for the period 2000 to 2018. This reveals (a) an overall trend of -882±824 km2 yr−1 (-0.19±0.18 % yr−1) and (b) eight distinct regions in terms of fast-ice coverage and modes of formation. Of these, four exhibit positive trends over the 18-year period and four negative. Positive trends are seen in East Antarctica and in the Bellingshausen Sea, with this region claiming the largest positive trend of +1198±359 km2 yr−1 (+1.10±0.35 % yr−1). The four negative trends predominantly occur in West Antarctica, with the largest negative trend of -1206±277 km2 yr−1 (-1.78±0.41 % yr−1) occurring in the Victoria and Oates Land region in the western Ross Sea. All trends are significant. This new baseline analysis represents a significant advance in our knowledge of the current state of both the global cryosphere and the complex Antarctic coastal system, which are vulnerable to climate variability and change. It will also inform a widemore »range of other studies.« less
  3. Abstract. During katabatic wind events in the Terra Nova Bay and Ross Sea polynyas, wind speeds exceeded 20 m s−1, air temperatures were below −25 ℃, and the mixed layer extended as deep as 600 meters. Yet, upper ocean temperature and salinity profiles were not perfectly homogeneous, as would be expected with vigorous convective heat loss. Instead, the profiles revealed bulges of warm and salty water directly beneath the ocean surface and extending downwards tens of meters. Considering both the colder air above and colder water below, we suggest the increase in temperature and salinity reflects latent heat and salt release during unconsolidated frazil ice production within the upper water column. We use a simplified salt budget to analyze these anomalies to estimate in-situ frazil ice concentration between 332 × 10−3 and 24.4 × 10−3 kg m−3. Contemporaneous estimates of vertical mixing by turbulent kinetic energy dissipation reveal rapid convection in these unstable density profiles, and mixing lifetimes from 2 to 12 minutes. The corresponding median rate of ice production is 26 cm day−1 and compares well with previous empirical and model estimates. Our individual estimates of ice production up to 378 cm day−1 reveal the intensity of short-term ice production events during the windiest episodes of our occupation of Terra Nova Baymore »Polynya. How to cite: De Pace, L., Smith, M., Thomson, J., Stammerjohn, S., Ackley, S., and Loose, B.: Frazil ice growth and production during katabatic wind events in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, The Cryosphere Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-213, in review, 2019.« less
  4. Due to the remarkable ecological value of the Ross Sea, the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) adopted a large-scale Ross Sea region marine protected area (RSRMPA) in 2016. Since then, many CCAMLR Members have conducted research and monitoring in the region. In 2021, the U.S. Ross Sea science community convened a workshop to collate, synthesize, and coordinate U.S. research and monitoring in the RSRMPA. Here we present workshop results, including an extensive synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature related to the region during the period 2010–early 2021. From the synthesis, several things stand out. First, the quantity and breadth of U.S. Ross Sea research compares to a National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research project, especially involving McMurdo Sound. These studies are foundational in assessing effectiveness of the RSRMPA. Second, climate change and fishing remain the two factors most critical to changing ecosystem structure and function in the region. Third, studies that integrate ecological processes with physical oceanographic change continue to be needed, especially in a directed and coordinated research program, in order to effectively separate climate from fishing to explain trends among designated indicator species.
  5. Biodiversity contributes to the ecological and climatic stability of the Amazon Basin1,2, but is increasingly threatened by deforestation and fire3,4. Here we quantify these impacts over the past two decades using remote-sensing estimates of fire and deforestation and comprehensive range estimates of 11,514 plant species and 3,079 vertebrate species in the Amazon. Deforestation has led to large amounts of habitat loss, and fires further exacerbate this already substantial impact on Amazonian biodiversity. Since 2001, 103,079–189,755 km2 of Amazon rainforest has been impacted by fires, potentially impacting the ranges of 77.3–85.2% of species that are listed as threatened in this region5. The impacts of fire on the ranges of species in Amazonia could be as high as 64%, and greater impacts are typically associated with species that have restricted ranges. We find close associations between forest policy, fire-impacted forest area and their potential impacts on biodiversity. In Brazil, forest policies that were initiated in the mid-2000s corresponded to reduced rates of burning. However, relaxed enforcement of these policies in 2019 has seemingly begun to reverse this trend: approximately 4,253–10,343 km2 of forest has been impacted by fire, leading to some of the most severe potential impacts on biodiversity since 2009. Thesemore »results highlight the critical role of policy enforcement in the preservation of biodiversity in the Amazon.« less