With potential applications in materials and especially in light-responsive biomedicine that targets cancer tissue selectively, much research has focused on developing covalent conjugation techniques to tether porphyrinoid units to various biomacromolecules. This review details the key synthetic approaches that have been employed in the recent decades to conjugate porphyrinoids with oligonucleotides and peptides/proteins. In addition, we provide succinct discussions on the subsequent applications of such hybrid systems and also give a brief overview of the rapidly progressing field of porphyrin-antibody conjugates. Since nucleic acid and peptide systems vary in structure, connectivity, functional group availability and placement, as well as stability and solubility, tailored synthetic approaches are needed for conjugating to each of these biomacromolecule types. In terms of tethering to ONs, porphyrins are typically attached by employing bioorthogonal chemistry (e.g., using phosphoramidites) that drive solid-phase ON synthesis or by conducting post-synthesis modifications and subsequent reactions (such as amide couplings, hydrazide-carbonyl reactions, and click chemistry). In contrast, peptides and proteins are typically conjugated to porphyrinoids using their native functional groups, especially the thiol and amine side chains. However, bioorthogonal reactions (e.g., Staudinger ligations, and copper or strain promoted alkyne-azide cycloadditions) that utilize de novo introduced functional groups onto peptides/proteins have seenmore »
Structure, Properties, and Reactivity of Porphyrins on Surfaces and Nanostructures with Periodic DFT Calculations
Porphyrins are fascinating molecules with applications spanning various scientific fields. In this review we present the use of periodic density functional theory (PDFT) calculations to study the structure, electronic properties, and reactivity of porphyrins on ordered two dimensional surfaces and in the formation of nanostructures. The focus of the review is to describe the application of PDFT calculations for bridging the gaps in experimental studies on porphyrin nanostructures and self-assembly on 2D surfaces. A survey of different DFT functionals used to study the porphyrin-based system as well as their advantages and disadvantages in studying these systems is presented.
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