skip to main content

Title: BNU-Net: A Novel Deep Learning Approach for LV MRI Analysis in Short-Axis MRI
This work presents a novel deep learning architecture called BNU-Net for the purpose of cardiac segmentation based on short-axis MRI images. Its name is derived from the Batch Normalized (BN) U-Net architecture for medical image segmentation. New generations of deep neural networks (NN) are called convolutional NN (CNN). CNNs like U-Net have been widely used for image classification tasks. CNNs are supervised training models which are trained to learn hierarchies of features automatically and robustly perform classification. Our architecture consists of an encoding path for feature extraction and a decoding path that enables precise localization. We compare this approach with a parallel approach named U-Net. Both BNU-Net and U-Net are cardiac segmentation approaches: while BNU-Net employs batch normalization to the results of each convolutional layer and applies an exponential linear unit (ELU) approach that operates as activation function, U-Net does not apply batch normalization and is based on Rectified Linear Units (ReLU). The presented work (i) facilitates various image preprocessing techniques, which includes affine transformations and elastic deformations, and (ii) segments the preprocessed images using the new deep learning architecture. We evaluate our approach on a dataset containing 805 MRI images from 45 patients. The experimental results reveal that our more » approach accomplishes comparable or better performance than other state-of-the-art approaches in terms of the Dice coefficient and the average perpendicular distance. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1646566
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10163100
Journal Name:
2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (BIBE)
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
731 to 736
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. This work presents a novel deep learning architecture called BNU-Net for the purpose of cardiac segmentation based on short-axis MRI images. Its name is derived from the Batch Normalized (BN) U-Net architecture for medical image segmentation. New generations of deep neural networks (NN) are called convolutional NN (CNN). CNNs like U-Net have been widely used for image classification tasks. CNNs are supervised training models which are trained to learn hierarchies of features automatically and robustly perform classification. Our architecture consists of an encoding path for feature extraction and a decoding path that enables precise localization. We compare this approach with a parallel approach named U-Net. Both BNU-Net and U-Net are cardiac segmentation approaches: while BNU-Net employs batch normalization to the results of each convolutional layer and applies an exponential linear unit (ELU) approach that operates as activation function, U-Net does not apply batch normalization and is based on Rectified Linear Units (ReLU). The presented work (i) facilitates various image preprocessing techniques, which includes affine transformations and elastic deformations, and (ii) segments the preprocessed images using the new deep learning architecture. We evaluate our approach on a dataset containing 805 MRI images from 45 patients. The experimental results reveal that ourmore »approach accomplishes comparable or better performance than other state-of-the-art approaches in terms of the Dice coefficient and the average perpendicular distance. Index Terms—Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Batch Normalization; Exponential Linear Units« less
  2. Puyol Anton, E ; Pop, M ; Sermesant, M ; Campello, V ; Lalande, A ; Lekadir, K ; Suinesiaputra, A ; Camara, O ; Young, A (Ed.)
    Cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is the reference standard for assessing cardiac structure as well as function. However, CMRI data presents large variations among different centers, vendors, and patients with various cardiovascular diseases. Since typical deep-learning-based segmentation methods are usually trained using a limited number of ground truth annotations, they may not generalize well to unseen MR images, due to the variations between the training and testing data. In this study, we proposed an approach towards building a generalizable deep-learning-based model for cardiac structure segmentations from multi-vendor,multi-center and multi-diseases CMRI data. We used a novel combination of image augmentation and a consistency loss function to improve model robustness to typical variations in CMRI data. The proposed image augmentation strategy leverages un-labeled data by a) using CycleGAN to generate images in different styles and b) exchanging the low-frequency features of images from different vendors. Our model architecture was based on an attention-gated U-Net model that learns to focus on cardiac structures of varying shapes and sizes while suppressing irrelevant regions. The proposed augmentation and consistency training method demonstrated improved performance on CMRI images from new vendors and centers. When evaluated using CMRI data from 4 vendors and 6 clinical center,more »our method was generally able to produce accurate segmentations of cardiac structures.« less
  3. The segmentation of the ventricular wall and the blood pool in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been inves- tigated for decades, given its important role for delineation of cardiac functioning and diagnosis of heart diseases. One of the major challenges is that the inner epicardium boundary is not always visible in the image domain, due to the mix- ture of blood and muscle structures, especially at the end of contraction, or systole. To address it, we propose a novel ap- proach for the cardiac segmentation in the short-axis (SAX) MRI: coupled deep neural networks and deformable models. First, a 2D U-Net is adopted for each magnetic resonance (MR) slice, and a 3D U-Net refines the segmentation results along the temporal dimension. Then, we propose a multi- component deformable model to extract accurate contours for both endo- and epicardium with global and local constraints. Finally, a partial blood classification is explored to estimate the presence of boundary pixels near the trabeculae and solid wall, and to avoid moving the endocardium boundary inward. Quantitative evaluation demonstrates the high accuracy, ro- bustness, and efficiency of our approach for the slices ac- quired at different locations and different cardiac phases.
  4. Abstract Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of left ventricle (LV) flow combined with patient medical imaging data has shown great potential in obtaining patient-specific hemodynamics information for functional assessment of the heart. A typical model construction pipeline usually starts with segmentation of the LV by manual delineation followed by mesh generation and registration techniques using separate software tools. However, such approaches usually require significant time and human efforts in the model generation process, limiting large-scale analysis. In this study, we propose an approach toward fully automating the model generation process for CFD simulation of LV flow to significantly reduce LV CFD model generation time. Our modeling framework leverages a novel combination of techniques including deep-learning based segmentation, geometry processing, and image registration to reliably reconstruct CFD-suitable LV models with little-to-no user intervention.1 We utilized an ensemble of two-dimensional (2D) convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for automatic segmentation of cardiac structures from three-dimensional (3D) patient images and our segmentation approach outperformed recent state-of-the-art segmentation techniques when evaluated on benchmark data containing both magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography(CT) cardiac scans. We demonstrate that through a combination of segmentation and geometry processing, we were able to robustly create CFD-suitable LV meshes from segmentationsmore »for 78 out of 80 test cases. Although the focus on this study is on image-to-mesh generation, we demonstrate the feasibility of this framework in supporting LV hemodynamics modeling by performing CFD simulations from two representative time-resolved patient-specific image datasets.« less
  5. We consider an MRI reconstruction problem with input of k-space data at a very low undersampled rate. This can prac- tically benefit patient due to reduced time of MRI scan, but it is also challenging since quality of reconstruction may be compromised. Currently, deep learning based methods dom- inate MRI reconstruction over traditional approaches such as Compressed Sensing, but they rarely show satisfactory performance in the case of low undersampled k-space data. One explanation is that these methods treat channel-wise fea- tures equally, which results in degraded representation ability of the neural network. To solve this problem, we propose a new model called MRI Cascaded Channel-wise Attention Network (MICCAN), highlighted by three components: (i) a variant of U-net with Channel-wise Attention (UCA) mod- ule, (ii) a long skip connection and (iii) a combined loss. Our model is able to attend to salient information by filtering irrelevant features and also concentrate on high-frequency in- formation by enforcing low-frequency information bypassed to the final output. We conduct both quantitative evaluation and qualitative analysis of our method on a cardiac dataset. The experiment shows that our method achieves very promis- ing results in terms of three common metrics on the MRI reconstruction withmore »low undersampled k-space data. Code is public available« less