skip to main content

Title: The ALPINE−ALMA [C ii] Survey: on the nature of an extremely obscured serendipitous galaxy
ABSTRACT We report the serendipitous discovery of a dust-obscured galaxy observed as part of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Large Program to INvestigate [C ii] at Early times (ALPINE). While this galaxy is detected both in line and continuum emissions in ALMA Band 7, it is completely dark in the observed optical/near-infrared bands and only shows a significant detection in the UltraVISTA Ks band. We discuss the nature of the observed ALMA line, that is [C ii] at $z$ ∼ 4.6 or high-J CO transitions at $z$ ∼ 2.2. In the first case, we find a [C ii]/FIR luminosity ratio of $\mathrm{log}{(L_{[\mathrm{ C}\, \rm {\small {II}}]}/L_{\mathrm{ FIR}})} \sim -2.5$, consistent with the average value for local star-forming galaxies (SFGs). In the second case instead, the source would lie at larger CO luminosities than those expected for local SFGs and high-z submillimetre galaxies. At both redshifts, we derive the star formation rate (SFR) from the ALMA continuum and the physical parameters of the galaxy, such as the stellar mass (M*), by fitting its spectral energy distribution. Exploiting the results of this work, we believe that our source is a ‘main-sequence’, dusty SFG at $z$ = 4.6 (i.e. [C ii] emitter) with $\mathrm{log(SFR/M_{\odot }\, yr^{-1})}\sim 1.4$ more » and log(M*/M⊙) ∼ 9.9. As a support to this scenario our galaxy, if at this redshift, lies in a massive protocluster recently discovered at $z$ ∼ 4.57, at only ∼1 proper Mpc from its centre. This work underlines the crucial role of the ALPINE survey in making a census of this class of objects, in order to unveil their contribution to the global SFR density at the end of the Reionization epoch. « less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
875 to 887
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present ALMA [C ii] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum observations of three $z \gt 6$ low-luminosity quasars ($M_{\rm 1450} \gt -25$ mag) discovered by our Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey. The [C ii] line was detected in all three targets with luminosities of $(2.4\mbox{--}9.5) \times 10^8\, L_{\odot }$, about one order of magnitude smaller than optically luminous ($M_{\rm 1450} \lesssim -25$ mag) quasars. The FIR continuum luminosities range from $\lt 9 \times 10^{10}\, L_{\odot }$ (3 $\sigma$ limit) to ${\sim } 2 \times 10^{12}\, L_{\odot }$, indicating a wide range in star formation rates in these galaxies. Most of the HSC quasars studiedmore »thus far show [C ii]/ FIR luminosity ratios similar to local star-forming galaxies. Using the [C ii]-based dynamical mass ($M_{\rm dyn}$) as a surrogate for bulge stellar mass ($M_{\rm\, bulge}$), we find that a significant fraction of low-luminosity quasars are located on or even below the local $M_{\rm\, BH}$–$M_{\rm\, bulge}$ relation, particularly at the massive end of the galaxy mass distribution. In contrast, previous studies of optically luminous quasars have found that black holes are overmassive relative to the local relation. Given the low luminosities of our targets, we are exploring the nature of the early co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their hosts in a less biased way. Almost all of the quasars presented in this work are growing their black hole mass at a much higher pace at $z \sim 6$ than the parallel growth model, in which supermassive black holes and their hosts grow simultaneously to match the local $M_{\rm\, BH}$–$M_{\rm\, bulge}$ relation at all redshifts. As the low-luminosity quasars appear to realize the local co-evolutionary relation even at $z \sim 6$, they should have experienced vigorous starbursts prior to the currently observed quasar phase to catch up with the relation.

    « less
  2. ABSTRACT We report the detection of the far-infrared (FIR) fine-structure line of singly ionized nitrogen, [N ii] 205 $\mu$m , within the peak epoch of galaxy assembly, from a strongly lensed galaxy, hereafter ‘The Red Radio Ring’; the RRR, at z = 2.55. We combine new observations of the ground-state and mid-J transitions of CO (Jup = 1, 5, 8), and the FIR spectral energy distribution (SED), to explore the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) properties of the RRR. All line profiles suggest that the H ii regions, traced by [N ii] 205 $\mu$m , and the (diffuse and dense) molecular gas, traced by CO, are cospatial when averaged over kpc-sized regions.more »Using its mid-IR-to-millimetre (mm) SED, we derive a non-negligible dust attenuation of the [N ii] 205 $\mu$m line emission. Assuming a uniform dust screen approximation results a mean molecular gas column density >1024 cm−2, with a molecular gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100. It is clear that dust attenuation corrections should be accounted for when studying FIR fine-structure lines in such systems. The attenuation corrected ratio of $L_{\rm N\,{\small II}205} / L_{\rm IR(8\!-\!1000\, \mu m)} = 2.7 \times 10^{-4}$ is consistent with the dispersion of local and z > 4 SFGs. We find that the lower limit, [N ii] 205 $\mu$m -based star formation rate (SFR) is less than the IR-derived SFR by a factor of 4. Finally, the dust SED, CO line SED, and $L_{\rm N\,{\small II}205}$ line-to-IR luminosity ratio of the RRR is consistent with a starburst-powered ISM.« less
  3. ABSTRACT We present initial results from the Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey (CUBS). CUBS is designed to map diffuse baryonic structures at redshift z ≲ 1 using absorption-line spectroscopy of 15 UV-bright QSOs with matching deep galaxy survey data. CUBS QSOs are selected based on their NUV brightness to avoid biases against the presence of intervening Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at zabs < 1. We report five new LLSs of $\log \, N({\mathrm{ H} \,{\small I}})/{{\rm cm^{-2}}}\gtrsim 17.2$ over a total redshift survey path-length of $\Delta \, z_{\mathrm{ LL}}=9.3$, and a number density of $n(z)=0.43_{-0.18}^{+0.26}$. Considering all absorbers with $\log \,more »N({{\mathrm{ H} \,{\small I}}})/{{\rm cm^{-2}}}\gt 16.5$ leads to $n(z)=1.08_{-0.25}^{+0.31}$ at zabs < 1. All LLSs exhibit a multicomponent structure and associated metal transitions from multiple ionization states such as C ii, C iii, Mg ii, Si ii, Si iii, and O vi absorption. Differential chemical enrichment levels as well as ionization states are directly observed across individual components in three LLSs. We present deep galaxy survey data obtained using the VLT-MUSE integral field spectrograph and the Magellan Telescopes, reaching sensitivities necessary for detecting galaxies fainter than $0.1\, L_*$ at d ≲ 300 physical kpc (pkpc) in all five fields. A diverse range of galaxy properties is seen around these LLSs, from a low-mass dwarf galaxy pair, a co-rotating gaseous halo/disc, a star-forming galaxy, a massive quiescent galaxy, to a galaxy group. The closest galaxies have projected distances ranging from d = 15 to 72 pkpc and intrinsic luminosities from ${\approx} 0.01\, L_*$ to ${\approx} 3\, L_*$. Our study shows that LLSs originate in a variety of galaxy environments and trace gaseous structures with a broad range of metallicities.« less

    We present an analysis of the dust attenuation of star-forming galaxies at z = 2.5–4.0 through the relationship between the UV spectral slope (β), stellar mass (M*), and the infrared excess (IRX = LIR/LUV) based on far-infrared continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). Our study exploits the full ALMA archive over the COSMOS field processed by the A3COSMOS team, which includes an unprecedented sample of ∼1500 galaxies at z ∼ 3 as primary or secondary targets in ALMA band 6 or 7 observations with a median continuum sensitivity of 126 $\rm {\mu Jy\, beam}^{-1}$ (1σ). The detectionmore »rate is highly mass dependent, decreasing drastically below log (M*/M⊙) = 10.5. The detected galaxies show that the IRX–β relationship of massive (log M*/M⊙ > 10) main-sequence galaxies at z = 2.5–4.0 is consistent with that of local galaxies, while starbursts are generally offset by $\sim 0.5\, {\rm dex}$ to larger IRX values. At the low-mass end, we derive upper limits on the infrared luminosities through stacking of the ALMA data. The combined IRX–M* relation at $\rm {log\, ({\it M}_{\ast }/\mathrm{M}_{\odot })\gt 9}$ exhibits a significantly steeper slope than reported in previous studies at similar redshifts, implying little dust obscuration at log M*/M⊙ < 10. However, our results are consistent with earlier measurements at z ∼ 5.5, indicating a potential redshift evolution between z ∼ 2 and z ∼ 6. Deeper observations targeting low-mass galaxies will be required to confirm this finding.

    « less
  5. Abstract With Σ SFR ∼ 4200 M ⊙ yr −1 kpc −2 , SPT 0346–52 ( z = 5.7) is the most intensely star-forming galaxy discovered by the South Pole Telescope. In this paper, we expand on previous spatially resolved studies, using ALMA observations of dust continuum, [N ii ] 205 μ m, [C ii ] 158 μ m, [O i ] 146 μ m, and undetected [N ii ] 122 μ m and [O i ] 63 μ m emission to study the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) in SPT 0346–52. We use pixelated, visibility-based lens modeling to reconstruct themore »source-plane emission. We also model the source-plane emission using the photoionization code cloudy and find a supersolar metallicity system. We calculate T dust = 48.3 K and λ peak = 80 μ m and see line deficits in all five lines. The ionized gas is less dense than comparable galaxies, with n e < 32 cm −3 , while ∼20% of the [C ii ] 158 μ m emission originates from the ionized phase of the ISM. We also calculate the masses of several phases of the ISM. We find that molecular gas dominates the mass of the ISM in SPT 0346–52, with the molecular gas mass ∼4× higher than the neutral atomic gas mass and ∼100× higher than the ionized gas mass.« less