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Extracting User Behavior at Electric Vehicle Charging Stations with Transformer Deep Learning ModelsMobile applications have become widely popular for their ability to access real-time information. In electric vehicle (EV) mobility, these applications are used by drivers to locate charging stations in public spaces, pay for charging transactions, and engage with other users. This activity generates a rich source of data about charging infrastructure and behavior. However, an increasing share of this data is stored as unstructured text—inhibiting our ability to interpret behavior in real-time. In this article, we implement recent transformer-based deep learning algorithms, BERT and XLnet, that have been tailored to automatically classify short user reviews about EV charging experiences. We achieve classification results with a mean accuracy of over 91% and a mean F1 score of over 0.81 allowing for more precise detection of topic categories, even in the presence of highly imbalanced data. Using these classification algorithms as a pre-processing step, we analyze a U.S. national dataset with econometric methods to discover the dominant topics of discourse in charging infrastructure. After adjusting for station characteristics and other factors, we find that the functionality of a charging station is the dominant topic among EV drivers and is more likely to be discussed at points-of-interest with negative user experiences.
By displacing gasoline and diesel fuels, electric cars and fleets offer significant public health benefits by reducing emissions from the transportation sector. However, public confidence in the reliability of charging infrastructure remains a fundamental barrier to adoption. Using large-scale social data and machine learning based on 12,720 U.S. electric vehicle charging stations, we provide national evidence on how well the existing charging infrastructure is serving the needs of the expanding population of EV drivers in 651 core-based statistical areas in the United States. Contrary to predictions, we find that stations at private charging locations do not outperform public charging locations provided by government. We also find evidence of higher negative sentiment in the dense urban centers, where issues of charge rage and congestion may be the most prominent. Overall, 40% of drivers using mobility apps have faced negative experiences at EV charging stations, a problem that needs to be fixed as the market expands.
Electric vehicle charging stations in the workplace with high-resolution data from casual and habitual users
Problems of poor network interoperability in electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure, where data about real-time usage or consumption is not easily shared across service providers, has plagued the widespread analysis of energy used for transportation. In this article, we present a high-resolution dataset of real-time EV charging transactions resolved to the nearest second over a one-year period at a multi-site corporate campus. This includes 105 charging stations across 25 different facilities operated by a single firm in the U.S. Department of Energy Workplace Charging Challenge. The high-resolution data has 3,395 real-time transactions and 85 users with both paid and free sessions. The data has been expanded for re-use such as identifying charging behaviour and segmenting user groups by frequency of usage, stage of adoption, and employee type. Potential applications include but are not limited to simulating and parameterizing energy demand models; investigating flexible charge scheduling and optimal power flow problems; characterizing transportation emissions and electric mobility patterns at high temporal resolution; and evaluating characteristics of early adopters and lead user innovation.
Charging infrastructure is the coupling link between power and transportation networks, thus determining charging station siting is necessary for planning of power and transportation systems. While previous works have either optimized for charging station siting given historic travel behavior, or optimized fleet routing and charging given an assumed placement of the stations, this paper introduces a linear program that optimizes for station siting and macroscopic fleet operations in a joint fashion. Given an electricity retail rate and a set of travel demand requests, the optimization minimizes total cost for an autonomous EV fleet comprising of travel costs, station procurement costs, fleet procurement costs, and electricity costs, including demand charges. Specifically, the optimization returns the number of charging plugs for each charging rate (e.g., Level 2, DC fast charging) at each candidate location, as well as the optimal routing and charging of the fleet. From a case-study of an electric vehicle fleet operating in San Francisco, our results show that, albeit with range limitations, small EVs with low procurement costs and high energy efficiencies are the most cost-effective in terms of total ownership costs. Furthermore, the optimal siting of charging stations is more spatially distributed than the current siting of stations,more »
Greenhouse gas emissions embodied in electric vehicle charging infrastructure: a method and case study of Georgia, US 2021–2050
Electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure buildout is a major greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategy among governments and municipalities. In the United States, where petroleum-based transportation is the largest single source of GHG emissions, the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act of 2021 will support building a national network of 500 000 EV charging units. While the climate benefits of driving electric are well established, the potential embodied climate impacts of building out the charging infrastructure are relatively unexplored. Furthermore, ‘charging infrastructure’ tends to be conceptualized in terms of plugs and stations, leaving out the electrical and communications systems that will be required to support decarbonized and efficient charging. In this study, we present an EV charging system (EVCS) model that describes the material and operational components required for charging and forecasts the scale-up of these components based on EV market share scenarios out to 2050. We develop a methodology for measuring GHG emissions embodied in the buildout of EVCS and incurred during operation of the EVCS, including vehicle recharging, and we demonstrate this model using a case study of Georgia (USA). We find that cumulative GHG emissions from EVCS buildout and use are negligible, at less than 1% of cumulative emissionsmore »