skip to main content

Title: Dust condensation in evolving discs and the composition of planetary building blocks
ABSTRACT Partial condensation of dust from the Solar nebula is likely responsible for the diverse chemical compositions of chondrites and rocky planets/planetesimals in the inner Solar system. We present a forward physical–chemical model of a protoplanetary disc to predict the chemical compositions of planetary building blocks that may form from such a disc. Our model includes the physical evolution of the disc and the condensation, partial advection, and decoupling of the dust within it. The chemical composition of the condensate changes with time and radius. We compare the results of two dust condensation models: one where an element condenses when the mid-plane temperature in the disc is lower than the 50 per cent condensation temperature ($\rm T_{50}$) of that element and the other where the condensation of the dust is calculated by a Gibbs free energy minimization technique assuming chemical equilibrium at local disc temperature and pressure. The results of two models are generally consistent with some systematic differences of ∼10 per cent depending upon the radial distance and an element’s condensation temperature. Both models predict compositions similar to CM, CO, and CV chondrites provided that the decoupling time-scale of the dust is of the order of the evolution time-scale of the disc or more » longer. If the decoupling time-scale is too short, the composition deviates significantly from the measured values. These models may contribute to our understanding of the chemical compositions of chondrites, and ultimately the terrestrial planets in the Solar system, and may constrain the potential chemical compositions of rocky exoplanets. « less
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
2543 to 2553
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT The maximum temperature and radial temperature profile in a protoplanetary disc are important for the condensation of different elements in the disc. We simulate the evolution of a set of protoplanetary discs from the collapse of their progenitor molecular cloud cores as well as the dust decoupling within the discs as they evolve. We show how the initial properties of the cloud cores affect the thermal history of the protoplanetary discs using a simple viscous disc model. Our results show that the maximum mid-plane temperature in the disc occurs within 0.5 au. It increases with the initial cloud temperaturemore »and decreases with its angular velocity and the viscosity of the disc. From the observed properties of the molecular cloud cores, we find the median value of the maximum temperature is around 1250 K, with roughly 90 per cent of them being less than 1500 K – a value that is lower than the 50 per cent condensation temperatures of most refractory elements. Therefore, only cloud cores with high initial temperatures or low-angular velocities and/or low viscosities within the planet-forming discs will result in refractory-rich planetesimals. To reproduce the volatile depletion pattern of CM, CO, and CV chondrites and the terrestrial planets in Solar system, one must either have rare properties of the initial molecular cloud cores like high core temperature, or other sources of energy to heat the disc to sufficiently high temperatures. Alternatively, the volatile depletion observed in these chondrites may be inherited from the progenitor molecular cloud.« less
  2. Comparing compositional models of the terrestrial planets provides insights into physicochemical processes that produced planet-scale similarities and differences. The widely accepted compositional model for Mars assumes Mn and more refractory elements are in CI chondrite proportions in the planet, including Fe, Mg, and Si, which along with O make up >90% of the mass of Mars. However, recent improvements in our understandings on the composition of the solar photosphere and meteorites challenge the use of CI chondrite as an analog of Mars. Here we present an alternative model composition for Mars that avoids such an assumption and is based onmore »data from Martian meteorites and spacecraft observations. Our modeling method was previously applied to predict the Earth’s composition. The model establishes the absolute abundances of refractory lithophile elements in the bulk silicate Mars (BSM) at 2.26 times higher than that in CI carbonaceous chondrites. Relative to this chondritic composition, Mars has a systematic depletion in moderately volatile lithophile elements as a function of their condensation temperatures. Given this finding, we constrain the abundances of siderophile and chalcophile elements in the bulkMars and its core. The Martian volatility trend is consistent with <7 wt% S in its core, which is significantly lower than that assumed in most core models (i.e., >10 wt% S). Furthermore, the occurrence of ringwoodite at the Martian core-mantle boundary might have contributed to the partitioning of O and H into the Martian core.« less
  3. ABSTRACT We present 1.3 mm continuum ALMA long-baseline observations at 3–5 au resolution of 10 of the brightest discs from the Ophiuchus DIsc Survey Employing ALMA (ODISEA) project. We identify a total of 26 narrow rings and gaps distributed in 8 sources and 3 discs with small dust cavities (r <10 au). We find that two discs around embedded protostars lack the clear gaps and rings that are ubiquitous in more evolved sources with Class II SEDs. Our sample includes five objects with previously known large dust cavities (r >20 au). We find that the 1.3 mm radial profiles of these objectsmore »are in good agreement with those produced by numerical simulations of dust evolution and planet–disc interactions, which predict the accumulation of mm-sized grains at the edges of planet-induced cavities. Our long-baseline observations resulted in the largest sample of discs observed at ∼3–5 au resolution in any given star-forming region (15 objects when combined with Ophiuchus objects in the DSHARP Large Program) and allow for a demographic study of the brightest $\sim\! 5{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the discs in Ophiuchus (i.e. the most likely formation sites of giant planets in the cloud). We use this unique sample to propose an evolutionary sequence and discuss a scenario in which the substructures observed in massive protoplanetary discs are mainly the result of planet formation and dust evolution. If this scenario is correct, the detailed study of disc substructures might provide a window to investigate a population of planets that remains mostly undetectable by other techniques.« less
  4. Abstract Terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) are differentiated into three layers: a metallic core, a silicate shell (mantle and crust), and a volatile envelope of gases, ices, and, for the Earth, liquid water. Each layer has different dominant elements (e.g., increasing iron content with depth and increasing oxygen content to the surface). Chondrites, the building blocks of the terrestrial planets, have mass and atomic proportions of oxygen, iron, magnesium, and silicon totaling ≥ 90% and variable Mg/Si (∼ 25%), Fe/Si (factor of ≥2), and Fe/O (factor of ≥ 3). What remains an unknown is to what degree didmore »physical processes during nebular disk accretion versus those during post-nebular disk accretion (e.g., impact erosion) influence these planets final bulk compositions. Here we predict terrestrial planet compositions and show that their core mass fractions and uncompressed densities correlate with their heliocentric distance, and follow a simple model of the magnetic field strength in the protoplanetary disk. Our model assesses the distribution of iron in terms of increasing oxidation state, aerodynamics, and a decreasing magnetic field strength outward from the Sun, leading to decreasing core size of the terrestrial planets with radial distance. This distribution enhances habitability in our solar system and may be equally applicable to exoplanetary systems.« less
  5. Abstract Comets provide a valuable window into the chemical and physical conditions at the time of their formation in the young solar system. We seek insights into where and when these objects formed by comparing the range of abundances observed for nine molecules and their average values across a sample of 29 comets to the predicted midplane ice abundances from models of the protosolar nebula. Our fiducial model, where ices are inherited from the interstellar medium, can account for the observed mixing ratio ranges of each molecule considered, but no single location or time reproduces the abundances of all moleculesmore »simultaneously. This suggests that each comet consists of material processed under a range of conditions. In contrast, a model where the initial composition of disk material is “reset,” wiping out any previous chemical history, cannot account for the complete range of abundances observed in comets. Using toy models that combine material processed under different thermal conditions, we find that a combination of warm (CO-poor) and cold (CO-rich) material is required to account for both the average properties of the Jupiter-family and Oort cloud comets, and the individual comets we consider. This could occur by the transport (either radial or vertical) of ice-coated dust grains in the early solar system. Comparison of the models to the average Jupiter-family and Oort cloud comet compositions suggests the two families formed in overlapping regions of the disk, in agreement with the findings of A’Hearn et al. and with the predictions of the Nice model.« less