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Title: A possible distance bias for type Ia supernovae with different ejecta velocities
ABSTRACT After correcting for their light-curve shape and colour, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are precise cosmological distance indicators. However, there remains a non-zero intrinsic scatter in the differences between measured distance and that inferred from a cosmological model (i.e. Hubble residuals or HRs), indicating that SN Ia distances can potentially be further improved. We use the open-source relational data base kaepora to generate composite spectra with desired average properties of phase, light-curve shape, and HR. At many phases, the composite spectra from two subsamples with positive and negative average HRs are significantly different. In particular, in all spectra from 9 d before to 15 d after peak brightness, we find that SNe with negative HRs have, on average, higher ejecta velocities (as seen in nearly every optical spectral feature) than SNe with positive HRs. At +4 d relative to B-band maximum, using a sample of 62 SNe Ia, we measure a 0.091 ± 0.035 mag (2.7σ) HR step between SNe with Si ii λ6355 line velocities ($v_{Si\, rm{\small II}}$) higher/lower than −11 000 km s−1 (the median velocity). After light-curve shape and colour correction, SNe with higher velocities tend to have underestimated distance moduli relative to a cosmological model. The intrinsic scatter in our sample reduces from 0.094 to 0.082 mag after making this more » correction. Using the Si ii λ6355 velocity evolution of 115 SNe Ia, we estimate that a velocity difference >500 km s−1 exists at each epoch between the positive-HR and negative-HR samples with 99.4 per cent confidence. Finally at epochs later than +37 d, we observe that negative-HR composite spectra tend to have weaker spectral features in comparison to positive-HR composite spectra. « less
Authors:
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1815935 1518052
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10170340
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
493
Issue:
4
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
5713 to 5725
ISSN:
0035-8711
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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