skip to main content

Title: Carnegie Supernova Project: The First Homogeneous Sample of Super-Chandrasekhar-mass/2003fg-like Type Ia Supernovae
Abstract We present a multiwavelength photometric and spectroscopic analysis of 13 super-Chandrasekhar-mass/2003fg-like Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Nine of these objects were observed by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The 2003fg-like SNe have slowly declining light curves (Δ m 15 ( B ) < 1.3 mag), and peak absolute B -band magnitudes of −19 < M B < −21 mag. Many of the 2003fg-like SNe are located in the same part of the luminosity–width relation as normal SNe Ia. In the optical B and V bands, the 2003fg-like SNe look like normal SNe Ia, but at redder wavelengths they diverge. Unlike other luminous SNe Ia, the 2003fg-like SNe generally have only one i -band maximum, which peaks after the epoch of the B -band maximum, while their near-IR (NIR) light-curve rise times can be ≳40 days longer than those of normal SNe Ia. They are also at least 1 mag brighter in the NIR bands than normal SNe Ia, peaking above M H = −19 mag, and generally have negative Hubble residuals, which may be the cause of some systematics in dark-energy experiments. Spectroscopically, the 2003fg-like SNe exhibit peculiarities such as unburnt carbon well past maximum light, a large spread (8000–12,000 more » km s −1 ) in Si ii λ 6355 velocities at maximum light with no rapid early velocity decline, and no clear H -band break at +10 days. We find that SNe with a larger pseudo-equivalent width of C ii at maximum light have lower Si ii λ 6355 velocities and more slowly declining light curves. There are also multiple factors that contribute to the peak luminosity of 2003fg-like SNe. The explosion of a C–O degenerate core inside a carbon-rich envelope is consistent with these observations. Such a configuration may come from the core-degenerate scenario. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
1715133 1813466
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10351324
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
922
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
205
ISSN:
0004-637X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    1991T-like supernovae are the luminous, slow-declining extreme of the Branch shallow-silicon (SS) subclass of Type Ia supernovae. They are distinguished by extremely weak CaiiH & K and Siiiλ6355 and strong Feiiiabsorption features in their optical spectra at pre-maximum phases, and have long been suspected to be over-luminous compared to normal Type Ia supernovae. In this paper, the pseudo-equivalent width of the Siiiλ6355 absorption obtained at light curve phases from ≤ +10 days is combined with the morphology of thei-band light curve to identify a sample of 1991T-like supernovae in the Carnegie Supernova Project II. Hubble diagram residuals show that, at optical as well as near-infrared wavelengths, these events are over-luminous by ∼0.1–0.5 mag with respect to the less extreme Branch SS (1999aa-like) and Branch core-normal supernovae with similarB-band light-curve decline rates.

  2. We examine the early phase intrinsic (B - V)0 color evolution of a dozen SNe Ia discovered within three days of the inferred time of first light (t first) and have (B - V)0 color information beginning within five days of t first. The sample indicates there are two distinct early populations. The first is a population exhibiting blue colors that slowly evolve, and the second population exhibits red colors and evolves more rapidly. We find that the early blue events are all 1991T/1999aa-like with more luminous, slower declining light curves than those exhibiting early red colors. Placing the first sample on the Branch diagram (i.e., ratio of Si II λλ5972, 6355 pseudo-Equivalent widths) indicates that all blue objects are of the Branch shallow silicon (SS) spectral type, while all early red events except for the 2000cx-like SN 2012fr are of the Branch Core Normal (CN) or CooL (CL) type. A number of potential processes contributing to the early emission are explored, and we find that, in general, the viewing-angle dependance inherent in the companion collision model is inconsistent with all of the SS objects with early-time observations being blue and exhibiting an excess. We caution that great care mustmore »be taken when interpreting early phase light curves as there may be a variety of physical processes that are possibly at play and significant theoretical work remains to be done.« less
  3. The type Ia supernova (SN) 2012fr displayed an unusual combination of its Si II λλ5972, 6355 features. This includes the ratio of their pseudo-equivalent widths, placing it at the border of the shallow silicon (SS) and core normal (CN) spectral subtype in the Branch diagram, while the Si II λ6355 expansion velocities place it as a high-velocity (HV) object in the Wang et al. spectral type that most interestingly evolves slowly, placing it in the low-velocity gradient (LVG) typing of Benetti et al. Only 5% of SNe Ia are HV and located in the SS+CN portion of the Branch diagram, and fewer than 10% of SNe Ia are both HV and LVG. These features point toward SN 2012fr being quite unusual, similar in many ways to the peculiar SN 2000cx. We modeled the spectral evolution of SN 2012fr to see if we could gain some insight into its evolutionary behavior. We use the parameterized radiative transfer code SYNOW to probe the abundance stratification of SN 2012fr at pre-maximum, maximum, and post-maximum light epochs. We also use a grid of W7 models in the radiative transfer code PHOENIX to probe the effect of different density structures on the formation of themore »Si II λ6355 absorption feature at post-maximum epochs. We find that the unusual features observed in SN 2012fr are likely due to a shell-like density enhancement in the outer ejecta. We comment on possible reasons for atypical Ca II absorption features, and suggest that they are related to the Si II features. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Baade Telescope, located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.« less
  4. ABSTRACT

    The abundance distribution in the ejecta of the peculiar slowly declining Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 1999aa is obtained by modelling a time series of optical spectra. Similar to SN 1991T, SN 1999aa was characterized by early-time spectra dominated by Fe iii features and a weak Si ii 6355 Å line, but it exhibited a high-velocity Ca ii H&K line and morphed into a spectroscopically normal SN Ia earlier. Three explosion models are investigated, yielding comparable fits. The innermost layers are dominated by ∼0.3 M⊙ of neutron-rich stable iron-group elements, mostly stable iron. Above that central region lies a 56Ni-dominated shell, extending to $v \approx 11\, 000$–$12\, 000$ km s−1, with mass ∼0.65 M⊙. These inner layers are therefore similar to those of normal SNe Ia. However, the outer layers exhibit composition peculiarities similar to those of SN 1991T: The intermediate-mass elements shell is very thin, containing only ∼0.2 M⊙, and is sharply separated from an outer oxygen-dominated shell, which includes ∼0.22 M⊙. These results imply that burning suddenly stopped in SN 1999aa. This is a feature SN 1999aa shares with SN 1991T, and explains the peculiarities of both SNe, which are quite similar in nature apart from the different luminosities. The spectroscopic path from normal to SN 1991T-like SNe Ia cannot be explained solely bymore »a temperature sequence. It also involves composition layering differences, suggesting variations in the progenitor density structure or in the explosion parameters.

    « less
  5. ABSTRACT After correcting for their light-curve shape and colour, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are precise cosmological distance indicators. However, there remains a non-zero intrinsic scatter in the differences between measured distance and that inferred from a cosmological model (i.e. Hubble residuals or HRs), indicating that SN Ia distances can potentially be further improved. We use the open-source relational data base kaepora to generate composite spectra with desired average properties of phase, light-curve shape, and HR. At many phases, the composite spectra from two subsamples with positive and negative average HRs are significantly different. In particular, in all spectra from 9 d before to 15 d after peak brightness, we find that SNe with negative HRs have, on average, higher ejecta velocities (as seen in nearly every optical spectral feature) than SNe with positive HRs. At +4 d relative to B-band maximum, using a sample of 62 SNe Ia, we measure a 0.091 ± 0.035 mag (2.7σ) HR step between SNe with Si ii λ6355 line velocities ($v_{Si\, rm{\small II}}$) higher/lower than −11 000 km s−1 (the median velocity). After light-curve shape and colour correction, SNe with higher velocities tend to have underestimated distance moduli relative to a cosmological model. The intrinsic scatter in our sample reduces from 0.094 to 0.082 mag after making thismore »correction. Using the Si ii λ6355 velocity evolution of 115 SNe Ia, we estimate that a velocity difference >500 km s−1 exists at each epoch between the positive-HR and negative-HR samples with 99.4 per cent confidence. Finally at epochs later than +37 d, we observe that negative-HR composite spectra tend to have weaker spectral features in comparison to positive-HR composite spectra.« less