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Title: A vacuum ultraviolet ion source (VUV-IS) for iodide–chemical ionization mass spectrometry: a substitute for radioactive ion sources
Abstract. A new ion source (IS) utilizing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light is developed and characterized for use with iodide–chemical ionization massspectrometers (I−-CIMS). The VUV-IS utilizes a compact krypton lamp that emits light at two wavelengths corresponding to energies of∼10.030 and 10.641 eV. The VUV light photoionizes either methyl iodide (ionization potential, IP = 9.54 ± 0.02 eV)or benzene (IP = 9.24378 ± 0.00007 eV) to form cations and photoelectrons. The electrons react with methyl iodide to formI−, which serves as the reagent ion for the CIMS. The VUV-IS is characterized by measuring the sensitivity of a quadrupole CIMS (Q-CIMS) toformic acid, molecular chlorine, and nitryl chloride under a variety of flow and pressure conditions. The sensitivity of the Q-CIMS, with theVUV-IS, reached up to ∼700 Hz pptv−1, with detection limits of less than 1 pptv for a 1 min integration period. Thereliability of the Q-CIMS with a VUV-IS is demonstrated with data from a month-long ground-based field campaign. The VUV-IS is further tested byoperation on a high-resolution time-of-flight CIMS (TOF-CIMS). Sensitivities greater than 25 Hz pptv−1 were obtained for formic acid andmolecular chlorine, which were similar to that obtained with a radioactive source. In addition, the mass spectra from sampling ambient air wascleaner with the VUV-IS on the TOF-CIMS compared to measurements using a radioactive source. These results demonstrate that the VUV lamp is a viablesubstitute for radioactive more » ion sources on I−-CIMS systems for most applications. In addition, initial tests demonstrate that the VUV-IS canbe extended to other reagent ions by the use of VUV absorbers with low IPs to serve as a source of photoelectrons for high IP electron attachers,such as SF6-. « less
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Award ID(s):
1853930 1743401
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
3683 to 3696
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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