The microtubule cytoskeleton serves as a dynamic structural framework for mitosis in eukaryotic cells. TANGLED1 (TAN1) is a microtubule-binding protein that localizes to the division site and mitotic microtubules and plays a critical role in division plane orientation in plants. Here, in vitro experiments demonstrate that TAN1 directly binds microtubules, mediating microtubule zippering or end-on microtubule interactions, depending on their contact angle. Maize tan1 mutant cells improperly position the preprophase band (PPB), which predicts the future division site. However, cell shape–based modeling indicates that PPB positioning defects are likely a consequence of abnormal cell shapes and not due to TAN1 absence. In telophase, colocalization of growing microtubules ends from the phragmoplast with TAN1 at the division site suggests that TAN1 interacts with microtubule tips end-on. Together, our results suggest that TAN1 contributes to microtubule organization to ensure proper division plane orientation.more » « less
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- DOI PREFIX: 10.1083
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- Journal of Cell Biology
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Abstract Cell divisions are accurately positioned to generate cells of the correct size and shape. In plant cells, the new cell wall is built in the middle of the cell by vesicles trafficked along an antiparallel microtubule and a microfilament array called the phragmoplast. The phragmoplast expands toward a specific location at the cell cortex called the division site, but how it accurately reaches the division site is unclear. We observed microtubule arrays that accumulate at the cell cortex during the telophase transition in maize (Zea mays) leaf epidermal cells. Before the phragmoplast reaches the cell cortex, these cortical-telophase microtubules transiently interact with the division site. Increased microtubule plus end capture and pausing occur when microtubules contact the division site-localized protein TANGLED1 or other closely associated proteins. Microtubule capture and pausing align the cortical microtubules perpendicular to the division site during telophase. Once the phragmoplast reaches the cell cortex, cortical-telophase microtubules are incorporated into the phragmoplast primarily by parallel bundling. The addition of microtubules into the phragmoplast promotes fine-tuning of the positioning at the division site. Our hypothesis is that division site-localized proteins such as TANGLED1 organize cortical microtubules during telophase to mediate phragmoplast positioning at the final division plane.more » « less
Cell-division-plane orientation is critical for plant and animal development and growth. TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES 9 (AIR9) are division-site-localized microtubule-binding proteins required for division-plane positioning. The single mutants tan1 and air9 of Arabidopsis thaliana have minor or no noticeable phenotypes, but the tan1 air9 double mutant has synthetic phenotypes including stunted growth, misoriented divisions and aberrant cell-file rotation in the root differentiation zone. These data suggest that TAN1 plays a role in non-dividing cells. To determine whether TAN1 is required in elongating and differentiating cells in the tan1 air9 double mutant, we limited its expression to actively dividing cells using the G2/M-specific promoter of the syntaxin KNOLLE (pKN:TAN1–YFP). Unexpectedly, in addition to rescuing division-plane defects, expression of pKN:TAN1–YFP rescued root growth and cell file rotation defects in the root-differentiation zone in tan1 air9 double mutants. This suggests that defects that occur in the meristematic zone later affect the organization of elongating and differentiating cells.
During proliferative plant cell division, the new cell wall, called the cell plate, is first built in the middle of the cell and then expands outward to complete cytokinesis. This dynamic process requires coordinated movement and arrangement of the cytoskeleton and organelles.
Here we use live-cell markers to track the dynamic reorganization of microtubules, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, and endomembrane compartments during division and the formation of the cell plate in maize leaf epidermal cells.
The microtubule plus-end localized protein END BINDING1 (EB1) highlighted increasing microtubule dynamicity during mitosis to support rapid changes in microtubule structures. The localization of the cell-plate specific syntaxin KNOLLE, several RAB-GTPases, as well as two plasma membrane localized proteins was assessed after treatment with the cytokinesis-specific callose-deposition inhibitor Endosidin7 (ES7) and the microtubule-disrupting herbicide chlorpropham (CIPC). While ES7 caused cell plate defects in
Arabidopsis thaliana, it did not alter callose accumulation, or disrupt cell plate formation in maize. In contrast, CIPC treatment of maize epidermal cells occasionally produced irregular cell plates that split or fragmented, but did not otherwise disrupt the accumulation of cell-plate localized proteins. Discussion
Together, these markers provide a robust suite of tools to examine subcellular trafficking and organellar organization during mitosis and cell plate formation in maize.
Morphological properties of tissues and organs rely on cell growth. The growth of plant cells is determined by properties of a tough outer cell wall that deforms anisotropically in response to high turgor pressure. Cortical microtubules bias the mechanical anisotropy of a cell wall by affecting the trajectories of cellulose synthases in the wall that polymerize cellulose microfibrils. The microtubule cytoskeleton is often oriented in one direction at cellular length-scales to regulate growth direction, but the means by which cellular-scale microtubule patterns emerge has not been well understood. Correlations between the microtubule orientation and tensile forces in the cell wall have often been observed. However, the plausibility of stress as a determining factor for microtubule patterning has not been directly evaluated to date.
Here, we simulated how different attributes of tensile forces in the cell wall can orient and pattern the microtubule array in the cortex. We implemented a discrete model with transient microtubule behaviors influenced by local mechanical stress in order to probe the mechanisms of stress-dependent patterning. Specifically, we varied the sensitivity of four types of dynamic behaviors observed on the plus end of microtubules – growth, shrinkage, catastrophe, and rescue – to local stress. Then, we evaluated the extent and rate of microtubule alignments in a two-dimensional computational domain that reflects the structural organization of the cortical array in plant cells.
Our modeling approaches reproduced microtubule patterns observed in simple cell types and demonstrated that a spatial variation in the magnitude and anisotropy of stress can mediate mechanical feedback between the wall and of the cortical microtubule array.
Proper plant growth and development require spatial coordination of cell divisions. Two unrelated microtubule-binding proteins, TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES9 (AIR9), are together required for normal growth and division plane orientation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tan1 air9 double mutant has synthetic growth and division plane orientation defects, while single mutants lack obvious defects. Here we show that the division site-localized protein, PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN1 (POK1), was aberrantly lost from the division site during metaphase and telophase in the tan1 air9 mutant. Since TAN1 and POK1 interact via the first 132 amino acids of TAN1 (TAN11–132), we assessed the localization and function of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 double mutant. TAN11–132 rescued tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes and localized to the division site during telophase. However, replacing six amino-acid residues within TAN11–132, which disrupted the POK1–TAN1 interaction in the yeast-two-hybrid system, caused loss of both rescue and division site localization of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 mutant. Full-length TAN1 with the same alanine substitutions had defects in phragmoplast guidance and reduced TAN1 and POK1 localization at the division site but rescued most tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that TAN1 and AIR9 are required for POK1 localization, and yet unknown proteins may stabilize TAN1–POK1 interactions.