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Title: TANGLED1 mediates microtubule interactions that may promote division plane positioning in maize

The microtubule cytoskeleton serves as a dynamic structural framework for mitosis in eukaryotic cells. TANGLED1 (TAN1) is a microtubule-binding protein that localizes to the division site and mitotic microtubules and plays a critical role in division plane orientation in plants. Here, in vitro experiments demonstrate that TAN1 directly binds microtubules, mediating microtubule zippering or end-on microtubule interactions, depending on their contact angle. Maize tan1 mutant cells improperly position the preprophase band (PPB), which predicts the future division site. However, cell shape–based modeling indicates that PPB positioning defects are likely a consequence of abnormal cell shapes and not due to TAN1 absence. In telophase, colocalization of growing microtubules ends from the phragmoplast with TAN1 at the division site suggests that TAN1 interacts with microtubule tips end-on. Together, our results suggest that TAN1 contributes to microtubule organization to ensure proper division plane orientation.

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Award ID(s):
1716972 1453726
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1083
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Cell Biology
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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    Here we use live-cell markers to track the dynamic reorganization of microtubules, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, and endomembrane compartments during division and the formation of the cell plate in maize leaf epidermal cells.


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    Proper plant growth and development require spatial coordination of cell divisions. Two unrelated microtubule-binding proteins, TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES9 (AIR9), are together required for normal growth and division plane orientation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tan1 air9 double mutant has synthetic growth and division plane orientation defects, while single mutants lack obvious defects. Here we show that the division site-localized protein, PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN1 (POK1), was aberrantly lost from the division site during metaphase and telophase in the tan1 air9 mutant. Since TAN1 and POK1 interact via the first 132 amino acids of TAN1 (TAN11–132), we assessed the localization and function of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 double mutant. TAN11–132 rescued tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes and localized to the division site during telophase. However, replacing six amino-acid residues within TAN11–132, which disrupted the POK1–TAN1 interaction in the yeast-two-hybrid system, caused loss of both rescue and division site localization of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 mutant. Full-length TAN1 with the same alanine substitutions had defects in phragmoplast guidance and reduced TAN1 and POK1 localization at the division site but rescued most tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that TAN1 and AIR9 are required for POK1 localization, and yet unknown proteins may stabilize TAN1–POK1 interactions.

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