The microtubule cytoskeleton serves as a dynamic structural framework for mitosis in eukaryotic cells. TANGLED1 (TAN1) is a microtubule-binding protein that localizes to the division site and mitotic microtubules and plays a critical role in division plane orientation in plants. Here, in vitro experiments demonstrate that TAN1 directly binds microtubules, mediating microtubule zippering or end-on microtubule interactions, depending on their contact angle. Maize tan1 mutant cells improperly position the preprophase band (PPB), which predicts the future division site. However, cell shape–based modeling indicates that PPB positioning defects are likely a consequence of abnormal cell shapes and not due to TAN1 absence. In telophase, colocalization of growing microtubules ends from the phragmoplast with TAN1 at the division site suggests that TAN1 interacts with microtubule tips end-on. Together, our results suggest that TAN1 contributes to microtubule organization to ensure proper division plane orientation.
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Society of Plant Biologists
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- The Plant Cell
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 1496 to 1512
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Proper plant growth and development require spatial coordination of cell divisions. Two unrelated microtubule-binding proteins, TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES9 (AIR9), are together required for normal growth and division plane orientation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tan1 air9 double mutant has synthetic growth and division plane orientation defects, while single mutants lack obvious defects. Here we show that the division site-localized protein, PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN1 (POK1), was aberrantly lost from the division site during metaphase and telophase in the tan1 air9 mutant. Since TAN1 and POK1 interact via the first 132 amino acids of TAN1 (TAN11–132), we assessed the localization and function of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 double mutant. TAN11–132 rescued tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes and localized to the division site during telophase. However, replacing six amino-acid residues within TAN11–132, which disrupted the POK1–TAN1 interaction in the yeast-two-hybrid system, caused loss of both rescue and division site localization of TAN11–132 in the tan1 air9 mutant. Full-length TAN1 with the same alanine substitutions had defects in phragmoplast guidance and reduced TAN1 and POK1 localization at the division site but rescued most tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that TAN1 and AIR9 are required for POK1 localization, and yet unknown proteins may stabilize TAN1–POK1 interactions.
Contents Summary I. Introduction II. MT arrays in plant cells III. γ‐Tubulin and MT nucleation IV. MT nucleation sites or flexible MTOCs in plant cells V. MT‐dependent MT nucleation VI. Generating new MTs for spindle assembly VII. Generation of MTs for phragmoplast expansion during cytokinesis VIII. MT generation for the cortical MT array IX. MT nucleation: looking forward Acknowledgements References Summary
Cytoskeletal microtubules (
MTs) have a multitude of functions including intracellular distribution of molecules and organelles, cell morphogenesis, as well as segregation of the genetic material and separation of the cytoplasm during cell division among eukaryotic organisms. In response to internal and external cues, eukaryotic cells remodel their MTnetwork in a regulated manner in order to assemble physiologically important arrays for cell growth, cell proliferation, or for cells to cope with biotic or abiotic stresses. Nucleation of new MTs is a critical step for MTremodeling. Although many key factors contributing to MTnucleation and organization are well conserved in different kingdoms, the centrosome, representing the most prominent microtubule organizing centers ( MTOCs), disappeared during plant evolution as angiosperms lack the structure. Instead, flexible MTOCs may emerge on the plasma membrane, the nuclear envelope, and even organelles depending on types of cells and organisms and/or physiological conditions. MT‐dependent MTnucleation is particularly noticeable in plant cells because it accounts for the primary source of MTgeneration for assembling spindle, phragmoplast, and cortical arrays when the γ‐tubulin ring complex is anchored and activated by the augmin complex. It is intriguing what proteins are associated with plant‐specific MTOCs and how plant cells activate or inactivate MTnucleation activities in spatiotemporally regulated manners.
Cell-division-plane orientation is critical for plant and animal development and growth. TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES 9 (AIR9) are division-site-localized microtubule-binding proteins required for division-plane positioning. The single mutants tan1 and air9 of Arabidopsis thaliana have minor or no noticeable phenotypes, but the tan1 air9 double mutant has synthetic phenotypes including stunted growth, misoriented divisions and aberrant cell-file rotation in the root differentiation zone. These data suggest that TAN1 plays a role in non-dividing cells. To determine whether TAN1 is required in elongating and differentiating cells in the tan1 air9 double mutant, we limited its expression to actively dividing cells using the G2/M-specific promoter of the syntaxin KNOLLE (pKN:TAN1–YFP). Unexpectedly, in addition to rescuing division-plane defects, expression of pKN:TAN1–YFP rescued root growth and cell file rotation defects in the root-differentiation zone in tan1 air9 double mutants. This suggests that defects that occur in the meristematic zone later affect the organization of elongating and differentiating cells.
During proliferative plant cell division, the new cell wall, called the cell plate, is first built in the middle of the cell and then expands outward to complete cytokinesis. This dynamic process requires coordinated movement and arrangement of the cytoskeleton and organelles.
Here we use live-cell markers to track the dynamic reorganization of microtubules, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, and endomembrane compartments during division and the formation of the cell plate in maize leaf epidermal cells.
The microtubule plus-end localized protein END BINDING1 (EB1) highlighted increasing microtubule dynamicity during mitosis to support rapid changes in microtubule structures. The localization of the cell-plate specific syntaxin KNOLLE, several RAB-GTPases, as well as two plasma membrane localized proteins was assessed after treatment with the cytokinesis-specific callose-deposition inhibitor Endosidin7 (ES7) and the microtubule-disrupting herbicide chlorpropham (CIPC). While ES7 caused cell plate defects in
Arabidopsis thaliana, it did not alter callose accumulation, or disrupt cell plate formation in maize. In contrast, CIPC treatment of maize epidermal cells occasionally produced irregular cell plates that split or fragmented, but did not otherwise disrupt the accumulation of cell-plate localized proteins. Discussion
Together, these markers provide a robust suite of tools to examine subcellular trafficking and organellar organization during mitosis and cell plate formation in maize.