skip to main content

Title: Fusobacterium nucleatum host-cell binding and invasion induces IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion that drives colorectal cancer cell migration

Fusobacterium nucleatumis implicated in accelerating colorectal cancer (CRC) and is found within metastatic CRC cells in patient biopsies. Here, we found that bacterial invasion of CRC cells and cocultured immune cells induced a differential cytokine secretion that may contribute to CRC metastasis. We used a modified galactose kinase markerless gene deletion approach and found thatF. nucleatuminvaded cultured HCT116 CRC cells through the bacterial surface adhesin Fap2. In turn, Fap2-dependent invasion induced the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and CXCL1, which are associated with CRC progression and promoted HCT116 cell migration. Conditioned medium fromF. nucleatum–infected HCT116 cells caused naïve cells to migrate, which was blocked by depleting CXCL1 and IL-8 from the conditioned medium. Cytokine secretion from HCT116 cells and cellular migration were attenuated by inhibitingF. nucleatumhost-cell binding and entry using galactose sugars,l-arginine, neutralizing membrane protein antibodies, orfap2deletion.F. nucleatumalso induces the mobilization of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, in neutrophils and macrophages, the bacterial-induced secretion of cytokines was Fap2 independent. Thus, our findings show thatF. nucleatumboth directly and indirectly modulates immune and cancer cell signaling and migration. Because increased IL-8 and CXCL1 production in tumors is associated with increased metastatic potential and cell seeding, poor prognosis, and enhanced recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts, we propose that inhibition of host-cell binding and invasion, potentially through vaccination or novel galactoside compounds, could be an effective strategy for reducingF. nucleatum–associated CRC metastasis.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Science Signaling
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. eaba9157
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second deadliest cancer in the US due to its propensity to metastasize. Stromal cells and especially cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) play a critical biophysical role in cancer progression, but the precise pro-metastatic mechanisms are not clear. Activin A, a TGF-β family member, is a strong pro-metastatic cytokine in the context of CRC. Here, we assessed the link between biophysical forces and pro-metastatic signaling by testing the hypothesis that CAF-generated mechanical forces lead to activin A release and associated downstream effects. Consistent with our hypothesis, we first determined that stromal activin A secretion increased with increasing substrate stiffness. Then we found that stromally-secreted activin A induced ligand-dependent CRC epithelial cell migration and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, serum activin A levels are significantly increased in metastatic (stage IV) CRC patients (1.558 ng/ml versus 0.4179 ng/ml, p < 0.05). We propose that increased tumor microenvironment stiffness leads to stromal cell-mediated TGF-β family signaling relying on the induction and utilization of activin A signaling.

    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Currently, there is a great interest in nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery. Recent studies suggest that nanoparticles when introduced into the biological milieu are not simply passive carriers but may also contribute immunological activity themselves or of their own accord. For example there is considerable interest in the biomedical applications of one of the physiologically-based inorganic metal oxide nanoparticle, zinc oxide (ZnO). Indeed zinc oxide (ZnO) NP are now recognized as a nanoscale chemotherapeutic or anticancer nanoparticle (ANP) and several recent reports suggest ZnO NP and/or its complexes with drug and RNA induce a potent antitumor response in immuno-competent mouse models. A variety of cell culture studies have shown that ZnO NP can induce cytokines such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-12 which are known to regulate the tumor microenvironment. Much less work has been done on magnesium oxide (MgO), cobalt oxide (Co3O4), or nickel oxide (NiO); however, despite the fact that these physiologically-based metal oxide NP are reported to functionally load and assemble RNA and protein onto their surface and may thus also be of potential interest as nanovaccine platform. Here we initially compared in vitro immunogenicity of ZnO and Co3O4 NP and their effects on cancer-associated or tolerogenic cytokines. Based on these data we moved ZnO NP forward to testing in the ex vivo splenocyte assay relative to MgO and NiO NP and these data showed significant difference for flow cytometry sorted population for ZnO-NP, relative to NiO and MgO. These data suggesting both molecular and cellular immunogenic activity, a double-stranded anticancer RNA (ACR), polyinosinic:poly cytidylic acid (poly I:C) known to bind ZnO NP; when ZnO-poly I:C was injected into B16F10-BALB/C tumor significantly induced, IL-2 and IL-12 as shown by Cohen’s d test. LL37 is an anticancer peptide (ACP) currently in clinical trials as an intratumoral immuno-therapeutic agent against metastatic melanoma. LL37 is known to bind poly I:C where it is thought to compete for receptor binding on the surface of some immune cells, metastatic melanoma and lung cells. Molecular dynamic simulations revealed association of LL37 onto ZnO NP confirmed by gel shift assay. Thus using the well-characterized model human lung cancer model cell line (BEAS-2B), poly I:C RNA, LL37 peptide, or LL37-poly I:C complexes were loaded onto ZnO NP and delivered to BEAS-2B lung cells, and the effect on the main cancer regulating cytokine, IL-6 determined by ELISA. Surprisingly ZnO-LL37, but not ZnO-poly I:C or the more novel tricomplex (ZnO-LL37-poly I:C) significantly suppressed IL-6 by >98–99%. These data support the further evaluation of physiological metal oxide compositions, so-called physiometacomposite (PMC) materials and their formulation with anticancer peptide (ACP) and/or anticancer RNA (ACR) as a potential new class of immuno-therapeutic against melanoma and potentially lung carcinoma or other cancers. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract Background Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) is an important part of the blood actin buffer that prevents negative consequences of possible F-actin deposition in the microcirculation and has various functions during host immune response. Recent reports reveal that severe COVID-19 correlates with reduced levels of pGSN. Therefore, using an in vitro system, we investigated whether pGSN could attenuate increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) during its exposure to the portion of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein containing the receptor binding domain (S1 subunit). Materials and methods Two- and three-dimensional models of the human BBB were constructed using the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and exposed to physiologically relevant shear stress to mimic perfusion in the central nervous system (CNS). Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as immunostaining and Western blotting of tight junction (TJ) proteins assessed barrier integrity in the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and pGSN. The IncuCyte Live Imaging system evaluated the motility of the endothelial cells. Magnetic bead-based ELISA was used to determine cytokine secretion. Additionally, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed gene expression of proteins from signaling pathways that are associated with the immune response. Results pGSN reversed S1-induced BBB permeability in both 2D and 3D BBB models in the presence of shear stress. BBB models exposed to pGSN also exhibited attenuated pro-inflammatory signaling pathways (PI3K, AKT, MAPK, NF-κB), reduced cytokine secretion (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α), and increased expression of proteins that form intercellular TJ (ZO-1, occludin, claudin-5). Conclusion Due to its anti-inflammatory and protective effects on the brain endothelium, pGSN has the potential to be an alternative therapeutic target for patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially those suffering neurological complications of COVID-19. 
    more » « less
  4. Age is a leading risk factor for developing breast cancer. This may be in part to the time required for acquiring sufficient cancer mutations; however, stromal cells that accumulate in tissues and undergo senescence eventually develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype that alters the microenvironment to promote cancer. Our focus is on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) – stromal cells recruited to tumors due to their natural tropism for inflammatory tissues; MSCs have been shown to enhance the metastatic potential of tumor cells through direct interactions or paracrine signaling within the tumor. In the tumor, MSCs can differentiate into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts that play a central role in tumor growth and matrix remodeling. We recently investigated the molecular and mechanical differences in pre- and post- senescent MSCs and how their interactions with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells contribute to malignancy. Our data show post-senescent MSCs are larger and less motile, with more homogeneous mechanical properties than pre-senescent MSCs. In-depth omics analysis revealed differentially regulated genes and peptides including factors related to inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, and cytoskeletal regulation. A 3D co-culture model was used to assess the effects of pre- and post- senescent MSCs on collagen matrix remodeling. Although post-senescent MSCs were far less motile than pre-senescent MSCs and less contractile with the matrix, they profoundly altered matrix protein deposition and crosslinking, which resulted in local matrix stiffening effects. Post-senescent MSCs also induced an invasive breast cancer cell phenotype, characterized by increased proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. This invasive breast cancer cell behavior was further amplified when MDA-MB-231 was co-cultured with a mixture of pre- and post- senescent MSCs; this result was attributed to matrix remodeling and soluble factor secretion effects of post-senescent MSCs, which enhanced the migration of pre-senescent MSCs allowing them to form tracks in the collagen network for cancer cells to follow. Finally, molecular inhibitors targeting actomyosin contractility and adhesion were used to alter MSC interactions with breast cancer cells. Actin depolymerizing agent and focal adhesion kinase inhibitor were most efficient and completely able to block the effects of post-senescent MSCs on MDA-MB-231 invasion in collagen gels. This comprehensive approach can be used to identify molecular pathways regulating heterotypic interactions of post-senescent MSCs with other cells in the tumor. Furthermore, the local matrix stiffening effect of post-senescent MSCs may play a critical role in breast cancer progression. 
    more » « less
  5. Although many advanced biosensing techniques have been proposed for cytokine profiling, there are no clinically available methods that integrate high-resolution immune cell monitoring and in situ multiplexed cytokine detection together in a biomimetic tissue microenvironment. The primary challenge arises due to the lack of suitable label-free sensing techniques and difficulty for sensor integration. In this work, we demonstrated a novel integration of a localized-surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based biosensor with a biomimetic microfluidic ‘adipose-tissue-on-chip’ platform for an in situ label-free, high-throughput and multiplexed cytokine secretion analysis of obese adipose tissue. Using our established adipose-tissue-on-chip platform, we were able to monitor the adipose tissue initiation, differentiation, and maturation and simulate the hallmark formation of crown-like structures (CLSs) during pro-inflammatory stimulation. With integrated antibody-conjugated LSPR barcode sensor arrays, our platform enables simultaneous multiplexed measurements of pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and IL-4) cytokines secreted by the adipocytes and macrophages. As a result, our adipose-tissue-on-chip platform is capable of identifying stage-specific cytokine secretion profiles from a complex milieu during obesity progression, highlighting its potential as a high-throughput preclinical readout for personalized obesity treatment strategies. 
    more » « less