We demonstrate a two-dimensional, individually tunable electrowetting microlens array fabricated using standard microfabrication techniques. Each lens in our array has a large range of focal tunability from −1.7 mm to −∞ in the diverging regime, which we verify experimentally from 0 to 75 V for a device coated in Parylene C. Additionally, each lens can be actuated to within 1% of their steady-state value within 1.5 ms. To justify the use of our device in a phase-sensitive optical system, we measure the wavefront of a beam passing through the center of a single lens in our device over the actuation range and show that these devices have a surface quality comparable to static microlens arrays. The large range of tunability, fast response time, and excellent surface quality of these devices open the door to potential applications in compact optical imaging systems, transmissive wavefront shaping, and beam steering.
Confocal microscopes and two-photon microscopes are powerful tools for early cancer diagnosis because of their high-resolution 3D imaging capability, but applying them for clinical use in internal organs is hindered by the lack of axially tunable lens modules with small size, high image quality and large tuning range. This paper reports a compact MEMS lens scanner that has the potential to overcome this limitation. The MEMS lens scanner consists of a MEMS microstage and a microlens. The MEMS microstage is based on a unique serpentine inverted-series-connected (ISC) electrothermal bimorph actuator design. The microlens is an aspheric glass lens to ensure optical quality. The MEMS microstage has been fabricated and the lens scanner has been successfully assembled. The entire lens scanner is circular with an outer diameter of 4.4 mm and a clear optical aperture of 1.8 mm. Experiments show that the tunable range reaches over 200 µm at only 10.5 V and the stiffness of the microstage is 6.2 N/m. Depth scan imaging by the MEMS lens scanner has also been demonstrated with a 2.2 µm resolution, only limited by the available resolution target.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Optics Express
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- Article No. 23439
- 1094-4087; OPEXFF
- Optical Society of America
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Fabrication and characterization of a two-dimensional individually addressable electrowetting microlens array
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