Serverless Function-As-A-Service (FaaS) is an emerging cloud computing paradigm that frees application developers from infrastructure management tasks such as resource provisioning and scaling. To reduce the tail latency of functions and improve resource utilization, recent research has been focused on applying online learning algorithms such as reinforcement learning (RL) to manage resources. Compared to existing heuristics-based resource management approaches, RL-based approaches eliminate humans in the loop and avoid the painstaking generation of heuristics. In this paper, we show that the state-of-The-Art single-Agent RL algorithm (S-RL) suffers up to 4.6x higher function tail latency degradation on multi-Tenant serverless FaaS platforms and is unable to converge during training. We then propose and implement a customized multi-Agent RL algorithm based on Proximal Policy Optimization, i.e., multi-Agent PPO (MA-PPO). We show that in multi-Tenant environments, MA-PPO enables each agent to be trained until convergence and provides online performance comparable to S-RL in single-Tenant cases with less than 10% degradation. Besides, MA-PPO provides a 4.4x improvement in S-RL performance (in terms of function tail latency) in multi-Tenant cases.
Archipelago: A Scalable Low-Latency Serverless Platform
The increased use of micro-services to build web applications has spurred the rapid growth of Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) or serverless computing platforms. While FaaS simplifies provisioning and scaling for application developers, it introduces new challenges in resource management that need to be handled by the cloud provider. Our analysis of popular serverless workloads indicates that schedulers need to handle functions that are very short-lived, have unpredictable arrival patterns, and require expensive setup of sandboxes. The challenge of running a large number of such functions in a multi-tenant cluster makes existing scheduling frameworks unsuitable. We present Archipelago, a platform that enables low latency request execution in a multi-tenant serverless setting. Archipelago views each application as a DAG of functions, and every DAG in associated with a latency deadline. Archipelago achieves its per-DAG request latency goals by: (1) partitioning a given cluster into a number of smaller worker pools, and associating each pool with a semi-global scheduler (SGS), (2) using a latency-aware scheduler within each SGS along with proactive sandbox allocation to reduce overheads, and (3) using a load balancing layer to route requests for different DAGs to the appropriate SGS, and automatically scale the number of SGSs per DAG. Our testbed results show more »
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Current serverless Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) platforms generally use simple, classic scheduling algorithms for distributing function invocations while ignoring FaaS characteristics such as rapid changes in resource utilization and the freeze-thaw life cycle. In this paper, we present FaaSRank, a function scheduler for serverless FaaS platforms based on information monitored from servers and functions. FaaSRank automatically learns scheduling policies through experience using reinforcement learning (RL) and neural networks supported by our novel Score-Rank-Select architecture. We implemented FaaSRank in Apache OpenWhisk, an open source FaaS platform, and evaluated performance against other baseline schedulers including OpenWhisk's default scheduler on two 13-node OpenWhisk clusters. For training and evaluation, we adapted real-world serverless workload traces provided by Microsoft Azure. For the duration of test workloads, FaaSRank sustained on average a lower number of inflight invocations 59.62 % and 70.43 % as measured on two clusters respectively. We also demonstrate the generalizability of FaaSRank for any workload. When trained using a composite of 50 episodes each for 10 distinct random workloads, FaaSRank reduced average function completion time by 23.05% compared to OpenWhisk's default scheduler.
Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) is becoming an increasingly popular cloud-deployment paradigm for serverless computing that frees application developers from managing the infrastructure. At the same time, it allows cloud providers to assert control in workload consolidation, i.e., co-locating multiple containers on the same server, thereby achieving higher server utilization, often at the cost of higher end-to-end function request latency. Interestingly, a key aspect of serverless latency management has not been well studied: the trade-off between application developers' latency goals and the FaaS providers' utilization goals. This paper presents a multi-faceted, measurement-driven study of latency variation in serverless platforms that elucidates this trade-off space. We obtained production measurements by executing FaaS benchmarks on IBM Cloud and a private cloud to study the impact of workload consolidation, queuing delay, and cold starts on the end-to-end function request latency. We draw several conclusions from the characterization results. For example, increasing a container's allocated memory limit from 128 MB to 256 MB reduces the tail latency by 2× but has 1.75× higher power consumption and 59% lower CPU utilization.
Low-latency online services have strict Service Level Objectives (SLOs) that require datacenter systems to support high throughput at microsecond-scale tail latency. Dataplane operating systems have been designed to scale up multi-core servers with minimal overhead for such SLOs. However, as application demands continue to increase, scaling up is not enough, and serving larger demands requires these systems to scale out to multiple servers in a rack. We present RackSched, the first rack-level microsecond-scale scheduler that provides the abstraction of a rack-scale computer (i.e., a huge server with hundreds to thousands of cores) to an external service with network-system co-design. The core of RackSched is a two-layer scheduling framework that integrates inter-server scheduling in the top-of-rack (ToR) switch with intra-server scheduling in each server. We use a combination of analytical results and simulations to show that it provides near-optimal performance as centralized scheduling policies, and is robust for both low-dispersion and high-dispersion workloads. We design a custom switch data plane for the inter-server scheduler, which realizes power-of-k- choices, ensures request affinity, and tracks server loads accurately and efficiently. We implement a RackSched prototype on a cluster of commodity servers connected by a Barefoot Tofino switch. End-to-end experiments on a twelve-server testbedmore »
null (Ed.)Serverless computing has emerged as a new paradigm for running short-lived computations in the cloud. Due to its ability to handle IoT workloads, there has been considerable interest in running serverless functions at the edge. However, the constrained nature of the edge and the latency sensitive nature of workloads result in many challenges for serverless platforms. In this paper, we present LaSS, a platform that uses model-driven approaches for running latency-sensitive serverless computations on edge resources. LaSS uses principled queuing-based methods to determine an appropriate allocation for each hosted function and auto-scales the allocated resources in response to workload dynamics. LaSS uses a fair-share allocation approach to guarantee a minimum of allocated resources to each function in the presence of overload. In addition, it utilizes resource reclamation methods based on container deflation and termination to reassign resources from over-provisioned functions to under-provisioned ones. We implement a prototype of our approach on an OpenWhisk serverless edge cluster and conduct a detailed experimental evaluation. Our results show that LaSS can accurately predict the resources needed for serverless functions in the presence of highly dynamic workloads, and reprovision container capacity within hundreds of milliseconds while maintaining fair share allocation guarantees.