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Title: GRID: A Python Package for Field Plot Phenotyping Using Aerial Images
Aerial imagery has the potential to advance high-throughput phenotyping for agricultural field experiments. This potential is currently limited by the difficulties of identifying pixels of interest (POI) and performing plot segmentation due to the required intensive manual operations. We developed a Python package, GRID (GReenfield Image Decoder), to overcome this limitation. With pixel-wise K-means cluster analysis, users can specify the number of clusters and choose the clusters representing POI. The plot grid patterns are automatically recognized by the POI distribution. The local optima of POI are initialized as the plot centers, which can also be manually modified for deletion, addition, or relocation. The segmentation of POI around the plot centers is initialized by automated, intelligent agents to define plot boundaries. A plot intelligent agent negotiates with neighboring agents based on plot size and POI distributions. The negotiation can be refined by weighting more on either plot size or POI density. All adjustments are operated in a graphical user interface with real-time previews of outcomes so that users can refine segmentation results based on their knowledge of the fields. The final results are saved in text and image files. The text files include plot rows and columns, plot size, and total plot POI. The image files include displays of clusters, POI, and segmented plots. With GRID, users are completely liberated from the labor-intensive task of manually drawing plot lines or polygons. The supervised automation with GRID is expected to enhance the efficiency of agricultural field experiments.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1661348
NSF-PAR ID:
10176190
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Remote Sensing
Volume:
12
Issue:
11
ISSN:
2072-4292
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1697
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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    Methods

    Here, we implement the popular self-supervised contrastive learning methods of NNCLR Nearest neighbor Contrastive Learning of visual Representations) and SimCLR (Simple framework for Contrastive Learning of visual Representations) for the classification of spatial orientation and segmentation of embryos of maize kernels. Maize kernels are imaged using a commercial high-throughput imaging system. This image data is often used in multiple downstream applications across both production and breeding applications, for instance, sorting for oil content based on segmenting and quantifying the scutellum’s size and for classifying haploid and diploid kernels.

    Results and discussion

    We show that in both classification and segmentation problems, SSL techniques outperform their purely supervised transfer learning-based counterparts and are significantly more annotation efficient. Additionally, we show that a single SSL pre-trained model can be efficiently finetuned for both classification and segmentation, indicating good transferability across multiple downstream applications. Segmentation models with SSL-pretrained backbones produce DICE similarity coefficients of 0.81, higher than the 0.78 and 0.73 of those with ImageNet-pretrained and randomly initialized backbones, respectively. We observe that finetuning classification and segmentation models on as little as 1% annotation produces competitive results. These results show SSL provides a meaningful step forward in data efficiency with agricultural deep learning and computer vision.

     
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We used a variety of techniques such as the file locking mechanism, multithreading, circular buffers, real-time event decoding, and signal-decision plotting to realize the system. A video demonstrating the system is available at: https://www.isip.piconepress.com/projects/nsf_pfi_tt/resources/videos/realtime_eeg_analysis/v2.5.1/video_2.5.1.mp4. The final conference submission will include a more detailed analysis of the online performance of each module. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research reported in this publication was most recently supported by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation award number IIP-1827565 and the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program (PA CURE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of any of these organizations. REFERENCES [1] A. Craik, Y. He, and J. L. Contreras-Vidal, “Deep learning for electroencephalogram (EEG) classification tasks: a review,” J. Neural Eng., vol. 16, no. 3, p. 031001, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab0ab5. [2] A. C. Bridi, T. Q. Louro, and R. C. L. Da Silva, “Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients,” Rev. Lat. Am. Enfermagem, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 1034, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-1169.3488.2513. [3] M. Golmohammadi, V. Shah, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Deep Learning Approaches for Automatic Seizure Detection from Scalp Electroencephalograms,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 233–274. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36844-9_8. [4] “CFM Olympic Brainz Monitor.” [Online]. Available: https://newborncare.natus.com/products-services/newborn-care-products/newborn-brain-injury/cfm-olympic-brainz-monitor. [Accessed: 17-Jul-2020]. [5] M. L. Scheuer, S. B. Wilson, A. Antony, G. Ghearing, A. Urban, and A. I. Bagic, “Seizure Detection: Interreader Agreement and Detection Algorithm Assessments Using a Large Dataset,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol., 2020. https://doi.org/10.1097/WNP.0000000000000709. [6] A. Harati, M. Golmohammadi, S. Lopez, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved EEG Event Classification Using Differential Energy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium, 2015, pp. 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/SPMB.2015.7405421. [7] V. Shah, C. Campbell, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved Spatio-Temporal Modeling in Automated Seizure Detection using Channel-Dependent Posteriors,” Neurocomputing, 2021. [8] W. Tatum, A. Husain, S. Benbadis, and P. Kaplan, Handbook of EEG Interpretation. New York City, New York, USA: Demos Medical Publishing, 2007. [9] D. P. Bovet and C. Marco, Understanding the Linux Kernel, 3rd ed. O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2005. https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/understanding-the-linux/0596005652/. [10] V. Shah et al., “The Temple University Hospital Seizure Detection Corpus,” Front. Neuroinform., vol. 12, pp. 1–6, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3389/fninf.2018.00083. [11] F. Pedregosa et al., “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” J. Mach. Learn. Res., vol. 12, pp. 2825–2830, 2011. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.5555/1953048.2078195. [12] J. Gotman, D. Flanagan, J. Zhang, and B. Rosenblatt, “Automatic seizure detection in the newborn: Methods and initial evaluation,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 356–362, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4694(97)00003-9. 
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