skip to main content

Title: Examination of the Durability of Interband Cascade Lasers Against Structural Variations
By studying two interband cascade laser (ICL) wafers with structural parameters that deviated considerably from the design, the durability of the device performance against structural variations was explored. Even with the lasing wavelength blue shifted by more than 700 nm from the designed value near 4.6 μm at 300 K, the ICLs still performed very well with a threshold current density as low as 320 A/cm2 at 300 K, providing solid experimental evidence of the tolerance of ICL performance on structural variations.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1931193
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10179798
Journal Name:
Hongwai yu haomibo xuebao
Volume:
39
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
137-141
ISSN:
1001-9014
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. FeAs 2−x Se x ( x = 0.30–1.0) samples were synthesized as phase pure powders by conventional solid-state techniques and as single crystals ( x = 0.50) from chemical vapor transport. The composition of the crystals was determined to be Fe 1.025(3) As 1.55(3) Se 0.42(3) , crystallizing in the marcasite structure type, Pnnm space group. FeAs 2−x Se x (0 < x < 1) was found to undergo a marcasite-to-arsenopyrite ( P 2 1 / c space group) structural phase transition at x ∼ 0.65. The structures are similar, with the marcasite structure best described as a solid solution of As/Se, whereas the arsenopyrite has ordered anion sites. Magnetic susceptibility and thermoelectric property measurements from 300–2 K were performed on single crystals, FeAs 1.50 Se 0.50 . Paramagnetic behavior is observed from 300 to 17 K and a Seebeck coefficient of −33 μV K −1 , an electrical resistivity of 4.07 mΩ cm, and a very low κ l of 0.22 W m −1 K −1 at 300 K are observed. In order to determine the impact of the structural transition on the high-temperature thermoelectric properties, polycrystalline FeAs 2−x Se x ( x = 0.30, 0.75, 0.85, 1.0) samplesmore »were consolidated into dense pellets for measurements of thermoelectric properties. The x = 0.85 sample shows the best thermoelectric performance. The electronic structure of FeAsSe was calculated with DFT and transport properties were approximately modeled above 500 K.« less
  2. Thermoelectric materials can convert heat into electricity. They are used to generate electricity when other power sources are not available or to increase energy efficiency by recycling waste heat. The Yb 21 Mn 4 Sb 18 phase was previously shown to have good thermoelectric performance due to its large Seebeck coefficient (∼290 μV K −1 ) and low thermal conductivity (0.4 W m −1 K −1 ). These characteristics stem respectively from the unique [Mn 4 Sb 10 ] 22− subunit and the large unit cell/site disorder inherent in this phase. The solid solutions, Yb 21 Mn 4− x Cd x Sb 18 ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5) and Yb 21− y Ca y Mn 4 Sb 18 ( y = 3, 6, 9, 10.5) have been prepared, their structures characterized and thermoelectric properties from room temperature to 800 K measured. A detailed look into the structural disorder for the Cd and Ca solid solutions was performed using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function methods and shows that these are highly disordered structures. The substitution of Cd gives rise to more metallic behavior whereas Ca substitution results in high resistivity. As both Cd and Ca aremore »isoelectronic substitutions, the changes in properties are attributed to changes in the electronic structure. Both solid solutions show that the thermal conductivities remain extremely low (∼0.4 W m −1 K −1 ) and that the Seebeck coefficients remain high (>200 μV K −1 ). The temperature dependence of the carrier mobility with increased Ca substitution, changing from approximately T −1 to T −0.5 , suggests that another scattering mechanism is being introduced. As the bonding changes from polar covalent with Yb to ionic for Ca, polar optical phonon scattering becomes the dominant mechanism. Experimental studies of the Cd solid solutions result in a max zT of ∼1 at 800 K and, more importantly for application purposes, a ZT avg ∼ 0.6 from 300 K to 800 K.« less
  3. InAs-based interband cascade lasers (ICLs) can be more easily adapted toward long wavelength operation than their GaSb counterparts. Devices made from two recent ICL wafers with an advanced waveguide structure are reported, which demonstrate improved device performance in terms of reduced threshold current densities for ICLs near 11  μm or extended operating wavelength beyond 13  μm. The ICLs near 11  μm yielded a significantly reduced continuous wave (cw) lasing threshold of 23 A/cm2at 80 K with substantially increased cw output power, compared with previously reported ICLs at similar wavelengths. ICLs made from the second wafer incorporated an innovative quantum well active region, comprised of InAsP layers, and lased in the pulsed-mode up to 120 K at 13.2  μm, which is the longest wavelength achieved for III–V interband lasers.

  4. Phase change memory (PCM) is a high speed, high endurance, high density non-volatile memory technology that utilizes chalcogenide materials such as Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) that can be electrically cycled between highly resistive amorphous and low resistance crystalline phases. The resistance of the amorphous phase of PCM cells increase (drift) in time following a power law [1] , which increases the memory window in time but limits in the implementation of multi-bit-per-cell PCM. There has been a number of theories explaining the origin of drift [1] - [4] , mostly attributing it to structural relaxation, a thermally activated rearrangement of atoms in the amorphous structure [2] . Most of the studies on resistance drift are based on experiments at or above room temperature, where multiple processes may be occurring simultaneously. In this work, we melt-quenched amorphized GST line cells with widths ~120-140 nm, lengths ~390-500 nm, and thickness ~50nm ( Fig. 1 ) and monitored the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics using a parameter analyzer ( Fig. 2 ) in 85 K to 350 K range. We extracted the drift co-efficient from the slope of the resistance vs. time plots (using low-voltage measurements) and observed resistance drift in themore »125 K -300 K temperature range ( Fig. 3 ). We found an approximately linear increase in drift coefficient as a function of temperature from ~ 0.07 at 125 K to ~ 0.11 at 200 K and approximately constant drift coefficients in the 200 K to 300 K range ( Fig. 3 inset). These results suggest that structural relaxations alone cannot account for resistance drift, additional mechanisms are contributing to this phenomenon [5] , [6] .« less
  5. Serial synchrotron-based crystallography using intense microfocused X-ray beams, fast-framing detectors and protein microcrystals held at 300 K promises to expand the range of accessible structural targets and to increase overall structure-pipeline throughputs. To explore the nature and consequences of X-ray radiation damage under microbeam illumination, the time-, dose- and temperature-dependent evolution of crystal diffraction have been measured with maximum dose rates of 50 MGy s −1 . At all temperatures and dose rates, the integrated diffraction intensity for a fixed crystal orientation shows non-exponential decays with dose. Non-exponential decays are a consequence of non-uniform illumination and the resulting spatial evolution of diffracted intensity within the illuminated crystal volume. To quantify radiation-damage lifetimes and the damage state of diffracting crystal regions, a revised diffraction-weighted dose (DWD) is defined and it is shown that for Gaussian beams the DWD becomes nearly independent of actual dose at large doses. An apparent delayed onset of radiation damage seen in some intensity–dose curves is in fact a consequence of damage. Intensity fluctuations at high dose rates may arise from the impulsive release of gaseous damage products. Accounting for these effects, data collection at the highest dose rates increases crystal radiation lifetimes near 300 K (but not at 100 K) bymore »a factor of ∼1.5–2 compared with those observed at conventional dose rates. Improved quantification and modeling of the complex spatio-temporal evolution of protein microcrystal diffraction in intense microbeams will enable more efficient data collection, and will be essential in improving the accuracy of structure factors and structural models.« less