skip to main content

Title: Nudged elastic band method for solid-solid transition under finite deformation
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Journal of Chemical Physics
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The solid–solid electrode–electrolyte interface represents an important component in solid‐state batteries (SSBs), as ionic diffusion, reaction, transformation, and restructuring could all take place. As these processes strongly influence the battery performance, studying the evolution of the solid–solid interfaces, particularly in situ during battery operation, can provide insights to establish the structure–property relationship for SSBs. Synchrotron X‐ray techniques, owing to their unique penetration power and diverse approaches, are suitable to investigate the buried interfaces and examine structural, compositional, and morphological changes. In this review, we will discuss various surface‐sensitive synchrotron‐based scattering, spectroscopy, and imaging methods for the in situ characterization of solid–solid interfaces and how this information can be correlated to the electrochemical properties of SSBs. The goal is to overview the advantages and disadvantages of each technique by highlighting representative examples, so that similar strategies can be applied by battery researchers and beyond to study similar solid‐solid interface systems.

    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
  3. null (Ed.)
    Crystallization is fundamental to materials science and is central to a variety of applications, ranging from the fabrication of silicon wafers for microelectronics to the determination of protein structures. The basic picture is that a crystal nucleates from a homogeneous fluid by a spontaneous fluctuation that kicks the system over a single free-energy barrier. However, it is becoming apparent that nucleation is often more complicated than this simple picture and, instead, can proceed via multiple transformations of metastable structures along the pathway to the thermodynamic minimum. In this article, we observe, characterize, and model crystallization pathways using DNA-coated colloids. We use optical microscopy to investigate the crystallization of a binary colloidal mixture with single-particle resolution. We observe classical one-step pathways and nonclassical two-step pathways that proceed via a solid–solid transformation of a crystal intermediate. We also use enhanced sampling to compute the free-energy landscapes corresponding to our experiments and show that both one- and two-step pathways are driven by thermodynamics alone. Specifically, the two-step solid–solid transition is governed by a competition between two different crystal phases with free energies that depend on the crystal size. These results extend our understanding of available pathways to crystallization, by showing that size-dependent thermodynamic forces can produce pathways with multiple crystal phases that interconvert without free-energy barriers and could provide approaches to controlling the self-assembly of materials made from colloids. 
    more » « less