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For the past century, dislocations have been understood to be the carriers of plastic deformation in crystalline solids. However, their collective behavior is still poorly understood. Progress in understanding the collective behavior of dislocations has primarily come in one of two modes: the simulation of systems of interacting discrete dislocations and the treatment of density measures of varying complexity that are considered as continuum fields. A summary of contemporary models of continuum dislocation dynamics is presented. These include, in order of complexity, the two-dimensional statistical theory of dislocations, the field dislocation mechanics treating the total Kröner–Nye tensor, vector density approaches that treat geometrically necessary dislocations on each slip system of a crystal, and high-order theories that examine the effect of dislocation curvature and distribution over orientation. Each of theories contain common themes, including statistical closure of the kinetic dislocation transport equations and treatment of dislocation reactions such as junction formation. An emphasis is placed on how these common themes rely on closure relations obtained by analysis of discrete dislocation dynamics experiments. The outlook of these various continuum theories of dislocation motion is then discussed.
On the computational solution of vector-density based continuum dislocation dynamics models: a comparison of two plastic distortion and stress update algorithmsContinuum dislocation dynamics models of mesoscale plasticity consist of dislocation transport-reaction equations coupled with crystal mechanics equations. The coupling between these two sets of equations is such that dislocation transport gives rise to the evolution of plastic distortion (strain), while the evolution of the latter fixes the stress from which the dislocation velocity field is found via a mobility law. Earlier solutions of these equations employed a staggered solution scheme for the two sets of equations in which the plastic distortion was updated via time integration of its rate, as found from Orowan’s law. In this work, we show that such a direct time integration scheme can suffer from accumulation of numerical errors. We introduce an alternative scheme based on field dislocation mechanics that ensures consistency between the plastic distortion and the dislocation content in the crystal. The new scheme is based on calculating the compatible and incompatible parts of the plastic distortion separately, and the incompatible part is calculated from the current dislocation density field. Stress field and dislocation transport calculations were implemented within a finite element based discretization of the governing equations, with the crystal mechanics part solved by a conventional Galerkin method and the dislocation transport equationsmore »
Development of mean-field continuum dislocation kinematics with junction reactions using de Rham currents and graph theoryAn accurate description of the evolution of dislocation networks is an essential part of discrete and continuum dislocation dynamics models. These networks evolve by motion of the dislocation lines and by forming junctions between these lines via cross slip, annihilation and junction reactions. In this work, we introduce these dislocation reactions into continuum dislocation models using the theory of de Rham currents. We introduce dislocations on each slip system as potentially open lines whose boundaries are associated with junction points and, therefore, still create a network of collectively closed lines that satisfy the classical relations and for the dislocation density tensor and the plastic distortion . To ensure this, we leverage Frank’s second rule at the junction nodes and the concept of virtual dislocation segments. We introduce the junction point density as a new state variable that represents the distribution of junction points within the crystal containing the dislocation network. Adding this information requires knowledge of the global structure of the dislocation network, which we obtain from its representation as a graph. We derive transport relations for the dislocation line density on each slip system in the crystal, which now includes a term that corresponds to the motion of junctionmore »
The deformation of crystalline materials by dislocation motion takes place in discrete amounts determined by the Burgers vector. Dislocations may move individually or in bundles, potentially giving rise to intermittent slip. This confers plastic deformation with a certain degree of variability that can be interpreted as being caused by stochastic fluctuations in dislocation behavior. However, crystal plasticity (CP) models are almost always formulated in a continuum sense, assuming that fluctuations average out over large material volumes and/or cancel out due to multi-slip contributions. Nevertheless, plastic fluctuations are known to be important in confined volumes at or below the micron scale, at high temperatures, and under low strain rate/stress deformation conditions. Here, we develop a stochastic solver for CP models based on the residence-time algorithm that naturally captures plastic fluctuations by sampling among the set of active slip systems in the crystal. The method solves the evolution equations of explicit CP formulations, which are recast as stochastic ordinary differential equations and integrated discretely in time. The stochastic CP model is numerically stable by design and naturally breaks the symmetry of plastic slip by sampling among the active plastic shear rates with the correct probability. This can lead to phenomena suchmore »
Multiscale Experimentation and Modeling of Localized Damage in Diffusion‐Bonded 316L Stainless Steel Structures
Herein, experimental and modeling tools are employed to understand the joint area for a diffusion‐bonded 316L stainless steel. Detailed microstructure characterizations by means of optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy are coupled to in situ micromechanical testing and micro‐ and nano‐indentation to fully reveal the properties at the joint area. Crystal plasticity finite‐element modeling is performed utilizing the exact microstructure to understand the effect of individual slip systems on transgranular strain fields. It is revealed that the diffusion line is only marginally harder. The final failure of the sample occurred away from the joint area, and both the base metal and bond line, shows evidence of considerable twinning and plastic deformation by (dislocation) slip initiating at grain boundaries. Additional slip systems and slip bands form to propagate across all matrices, blocking further dislocations after the ultimate tensile strength point. The presence of flaws within the weldment is found to be negligible.