skip to main content

Title: Development of mean-field continuum dislocation kinematics with junction reactions using de Rham currents and graph theory
An accurate description of the evolution of dislocation networks is an essential part of discrete and continuum dislocation dynamics models. These networks evolve by motion of the dislocation lines and by forming junctions between these lines via cross slip, annihilation and junction reactions. In this work, we introduce these dislocation reactions into continuum dislocation models using the theory of de Rham currents. We introduce dislocations on each slip system as potentially open lines whose boundaries are associated with junction points and, therefore, still create a network of collectively closed lines that satisfy the classical relations and for the dislocation density tensor and the plastic distortion . To ensure this, we leverage Frank’s second rule at the junction nodes and the concept of virtual dislocation segments. We introduce the junction point density as a new state variable that represents the distribution of junction points within the crystal containing the dislocation network. Adding this information requires knowledge of the global structure of the dislocation network, which we obtain from its representation as a graph. We derive transport relations for the dislocation line density on each slip system in the crystal, which now includes a term that corresponds to the motion of junction points. We also derive the transport relations for junction points, which include source terms that reflect the topology changes of the dislocation network due to junction formation.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of the mechanics and physics of solids
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. For the past century, dislocations have been understood to be the carriers of plastic deformation in crystalline solids. However, their collective behavior is still poorly understood. Progress in understanding the collective behavior of dislocations has primarily come in one of two modes: the simulation of systems of interacting discrete dislocations and the treatment of density measures of varying complexity that are considered as continuum fields. A summary of contemporary models of continuum dislocation dynamics is presented. These include, in order of complexity, the two-dimensional statistical theory of dislocations, the field dislocation mechanics treating the total Kröner–Nye tensor, vector density approaches that treat geometrically necessary dislocations on each slip system of a crystal, and high-order theories that examine the effect of dislocation curvature and distribution over orientation. Each of theories contain common themes, including statistical closure of the kinetic dislocation transport equations and treatment of dislocation reactions such as junction formation. An emphasis is placed on how these common themes rely on closure relations obtained by analysis of discrete dislocation dynamics experiments. The outlook of these various continuum theories of dislocation motion is then discussed. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Continuum dislocation dynamics models of mesoscale plasticity consist of dislocation transport-reaction equations coupled with crystal mechanics equations. The coupling between these two sets of equations is such that dislocation transport gives rise to the evolution of plastic distortion (strain), while the evolution of the latter fixes the stress from which the dislocation velocity field is found via a mobility law. Earlier solutions of these equations employed a staggered solution scheme for the two sets of equations in which the plastic distortion was updated via time integration of its rate, as found from Orowan’s law. In this work, we show that such a direct time integration scheme can suffer from accumulation of numerical errors. We introduce an alternative scheme based on field dislocation mechanics that ensures consistency between the plastic distortion and the dislocation content in the crystal. The new scheme is based on calculating the compatible and incompatible parts of the plastic distortion separately, and the incompatible part is calculated from the current dislocation density field. Stress field and dislocation transport calculations were implemented within a finite element based discretization of the governing equations, with the crystal mechanics part solved by a conventional Galerkin method and the dislocation transport equations by the least squares method. A simple test is first performed to show the accuracy of the two schemes for updating the plastic distortion, which shows that the solution method based on field dislocation mechanics is more accurate. This method then was used to simulate an austenitic steel crystal under uniaxial loading and multiple slip conditions. By considering dislocation interactions caused by junctions, a hardening rate similar to discrete dislocation dynamics simulation results was obtained. The simulations show that dislocations exhibit some self-organized structures as the strain is increased. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The deformation of crystalline materials by dislocation motion takes place in discrete amounts determined by the Burgers vector. Dislocations may move individually or in bundles, potentially giving rise to intermittent slip. This confers plastic deformation with a certain degree of variability that can be interpreted as being caused by stochastic fluctuations in dislocation behavior. However, crystal plasticity (CP) models are almost always formulated in a continuum sense, assuming that fluctuations average out over large material volumes and/or cancel out due to multi-slip contributions. Nevertheless, plastic fluctuations are known to be important in confined volumes at or below the micron scale, at high temperatures, and under low strain rate/stress deformation conditions. Here, we develop a stochastic solver for CP models based on the residence-time algorithm that naturally captures plastic fluctuations by sampling among the set of active slip systems in the crystal. The method solves the evolution equations of explicit CP formulations, which are recast as stochastic ordinary differential equations and integrated discretely in time. The stochastic CP model is numerically stable by design and naturally breaks the symmetry of plastic slip by sampling among the active plastic shear rates with the correct probability. This can lead to phenomena such as intermittent slip or plastic localization without adding external symmetry-breaking operations to the model. The method is applied to body-centered cubic tungsten single crystals under a variety of temperatures, loading orientations, and imposed strain rates.

    more » « less
  4. Many social and biological systems are characterized by enduring hierarchies, including those organized around prestige in academia, dominance in animal groups, and desirability in online dating. Despite their ubiquity, the general mechanisms that explain the creation and endurance of such hierarchies are not well understood. We introduce a generative model for the dynamics of hierarchies using time-varying networks, in which new links are formed based on the preferences of nodes in the current network and old links are forgotten over time. The model produces a range of hierarchical structures, ranging from egalitarianism to bistable hierarchies, and we derive critical points that separate these regimes in the limit of long system memory. Importantly, our model supports statistical inference, allowing for a principled comparison of generative mechanisms using data. We apply the model to study hierarchical structures in empirical data on hiring patterns among mathematicians, dominance relations among parakeets, and friendships among members of a fraternity, observing several persistent patterns as well as interpretable differences in the generative mechanisms favored by each. Our work contributes to the growing literature on statistically grounded models of time-varying networks.

    more » « less
  5. A physically-informed continuum crystal plasticity model is presented to elucidate deformation mechanisms, dislocation evolution and the non-Schmid effect in body-centered-cubic (bcc) tantalum widely used as a key structural material for mechanical and thermal extremes. We show the unified structural modeling framework informed by mesoscopic dislocation dynamics simulations is capable of capturing salient features of the large inelastic behavior of tantalum at quasi-static (10−3 s−1) to extreme strain rates (5000 s−1) and at low (77 K) to high temperatures (873 K) at both single- and polycrystal levels. We also present predictive capabilities of the model for microstructural evolution in the material. To this end, we investigate the effects of dislocation interactions on slip activities, instability and the non-Schmid behavior at the single crystal level. Furthermore, ex situ measurements on crystallographic texture evolution and dislocation density growth are carried out for polycrystal tantalum specimens at increasing strains. Numerical simulation results also support that the modeling framework is capable of capturing the main features of the polycrystal behavior over a wide range of strains, strain rates and temperatures. The theoretical, experimental and numerical results at both single- and polycrystal levels provide critical insight into the underlying physical pictures for micro- and macroscopic responses and their relations in this important class of refractory bcc materials undergoing large inelastic deformations. 
    more » « less