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Title: Multi-Series CT Image Super-Resolution by using Transfer Generative Adversarial Network
Introduction Multi-series CT (MSCT) scans, including non-contrast CT (NCCT), CT Perfusion (CTP), and CT Angiography (CTA), are widely used in acute stroke imaging. While each scan has its advantage in disease diagnosis, the varying image resolution of different series hinders the ability of the radiologist to discern subtle suspicious findings. Besides, higher image quality requires high radiation doses, leading to increases in health risks such as cataract formation and cancer induction. Thus, it is highly crucial to develop an approach to improve MSCT resolution and to lower radiation exposure. Hypothesis MSCT imaging of the same patient is highly correlated in structural features, the transferring and integration of the shared and complementary information from different series are beneficial for achieving high image quality. Methods We propose TL-GAN, a learning-based method by using Transfer Learning (TL) and Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) to reconstruct high-quality diagnostic images. Our TL-GAN method is evaluated on 4,382 images collected from nine patients’ MSCT scans, including 415 NCCT slices, 3,696 CTP slices, and 271 CTA slices. We randomly split the nine patients into a training set (4 patients), a validation set (2 patients), and a testing set (3 patients). In preprocessing, we remove the background and skull and visualize in brain window. more » The low-resolution images (1/4 of the original spatial size) are simulated by bicubic down-sampling. For training without TL, we train different series individually, and for with TL, we follow the scanning sequence (NCCT, CTP, and CTA) by finetuning. Results The performance of TL-GAN is evaluated by the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM) index on 184 NCCT, 882 CTP, and 107 CTA test images. Figure 1 provides both visual (a-c) and quantity (d-f) comparisons. Through TL-GAN, there is a significant improvement with TL than without TL (training from scratch) for NCCT, CTP, and CTA images, respectively. These significances of performance improvement are evaluated by one-tailed paired t-tests (p < 0.05). We enlarge the regions of interest for detail visual comparisons. Further, we evaluate the CTP performance by calculating the perfusion maps, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). The visual comparison of the perfusion maps in Figure 2 demonstrate that TL-GAN is beneficial for achieving high diagnostic image quality, which are comparable to the ground truth images for both CBF and CBV maps. Conclusion Utilizing TL-GAN can effectively improve the image resolution for MSCT, provides radiologists more image details for suspicious findings, which is a practical solution for MSCT image quality enhancement. « less
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Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine (SIIM) Annual Meeting
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National Science Foundation
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By December 2021 we should also release the unannotated FCCC data. We are currently annotating urinary tract data as well. We expect to release about 5,600 processed TUH slides in this subset. We have an additional 53,000 unprocessed TUH slides digitized. Corpora of this size will stimulate the development of a new generation of deep learning technology. In clinical settings where resources are limited, an assistive diagnoses model could support pathologists’ workload and even help prioritize suspected cancerous cases. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This material is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants nos. CNS-1726188 and 1925494. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. REFERENCES [1] N. Shawki et al., “The Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York City, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 67 104. [2] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning.” Major Research Instrumentation (MRI), Division of Computer and Network Systems, Award No. 1726188, January 1, 2018 – December 31, 2021. https://www. [3] A. Gulati et al., “Conformer: Convolution-augmented Transformer for Speech Recognition,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH), 2020, pp. 5036-5040. [4] C.-J. Wu et al., “Machine Learning at Facebook: Understanding Inference at the Edge,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), 2019, pp. 331–344. [5] I. Caswell and B. Liang, “Recent Advances in Google Translate,” Google AI Blog: The latest from Google Research, 2020. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01-Aug-2021]. [6] V. Khalkhali, N. Shawki, V. Shah, M. Golmohammadi, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Low Latency Real-Time Seizure Detection Using Transfer Deep Learning,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2021, pp. 1 7. https://www.isip. [7] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning,” Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2020. [8] I. Hunt, S. Husain, J. Simons, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Recent Advances in the Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2019, pp. 1–4. [9] A. P. Martinez, C. Cohen, K. Z. Hanley, and X. (Bill) Li, “Estrogen Receptor and Cytokeratin 5 Are Reliable Markers to Separate Usual Ductal Hyperplasia From Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia and Low-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 686–689, Apr. 2016.« less
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