Translation of chirality and asymmetry across structural motifs and length scales plays a fundamental role in nature, enabling unique functionalities in contexts ranging from biological systems to synthetic materials. Here, we introduce a structural chirality transfer across the organic–inorganic interface in two-dimensional hybrid perovskites using appropriate chiral organic cations. The preferred molecular configuration of the chiral spacer cations,
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- Nature Communications
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Spin and valley degrees of freedom in materials without inversion symmetry promise previously unknown device functionalities, such as spin-valleytronics. Control of material symmetry with electric fields (ferroelectricity), while breaking additional symmetries, including mirror symmetry, could yield phenomena where chirality, spin, valley, and crystal potential are strongly coupled. Here we report the synthesis of a halide perovskite semiconductor that is simultaneously photoferroelectricity switchable and chiral. Spectroscopic and structural analysis, and first-principles calculations, determine the material to be a previously unknown low-dimensional hybrid perovskite (R)-(−)-1-cyclohexylethylammonium/(S)-(+)-1 cyclohexylethylammonium) PbI 3 . Optical and electrical measurements characterize its semiconducting, ferroelectric, switchable pyroelectricity and switchable photoferroelectric properties. Temperature dependent structural, dielectric and transport measurements reveal a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirms its chirality. The development of a material with such a combination of these properties will facilitate the exploration of phenomena such as electric field and chiral enantiomer–dependent Rashba-Dresselhaus splitting and circular photogalvanic effects.
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Circular photogalvanic spectroscopy of Rashba splitting in 2D hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite multiple quantum wells
The two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden−Popper organic-inorganic halide perovskites such as (2D)-phenethylammonium lead iodide (2D-PEPI) have layered structure that resembles multiple quantum wells (MQW). The heavy atoms in 2D-PEPI contribute a large spin-orbit coupling that influences the electronic band structure. Upon breaking the inversion symmetry, a spin splitting (‘Rashba splitting’) occurs in the electronic bands. We have studied the spin splitting in 2D-PEPI single crystals using the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE). We confirm the existence of Rashba splitting at the electronic band extrema of 35±10 meV, and identify the main inversion symmetry breaking direction perpendicular to the MQW planes. The CPGE action spectrum above the bandgap reveals spin-polarized photocurrent generated by ultrafast relaxation of excited photocarriers separated in momentum space. Whereas the helicity dependent photocurrent with below-gap excitation is due to spin-galvanic effect of the ionized spin-polarized excitons, where spin polarization occurs in the spin-split bands due to asymmetric spin-flip.
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