skip to main content

Title: Structural descriptor for enhanced spin-splitting in 2D hybrid perovskites

Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid metal halide perovskites have emerged as outstanding optoelectronic materials and are potential hosts of Rashba/Dresselhaus spin-splitting for spin-selective transport and spin-orbitronics. However, a quantitative microscopic understanding of what controls the spin-splitting magnitude is generally lacking. Through crystallographic and first-principles studies on a broad array of chiral and achiral 2D perovskites, we demonstrate that a specific bond angle disparity connected with asymmetric tilting distortions of the metal halide octahedra breaks local inversion symmetry and strongly correlates with computed spin-splitting. This distortion metric can serve as a crystallographic descriptor for rapid discovery of potential candidate materials with strong spin-splitting. Our work establishes that, rather than the global space group, local inorganic layer distortions induced via appropriate organic cations provide a key design objective to achieve strong spin-splitting in perovskites. New chiral perovskites reported here couple a sizeable spin-splitting with chiral degrees of freedom and offer a unique paradigm of potential interest for spintronics.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Nature Publishing Group
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    In two-dimensional chiral metal-halide perovskites, chiral organic spacers endow structural and optical chirality to the metal-halide sublattice, enabling exquisite control of light, charge, and electron spin. The chiroptical properties of metal-halide perovskites have been measured by transmissive circular dichroism spectroscopy, which necessitates thin-film samples. Here, by developing a reflection-based approach, we characterize the intrinsic, circular polarization-dependent complex refractive index for a prototypical two-dimensional chiral lead-bromide perovskite and report large circular dichroism for single crystals. Comparison with ab initio theory reveals the large circular dichroism arises from the inorganic sublattice rather than the chiral ligand and is an excitonic phenomenon driven by electron-hole exchange interactions, which breaks the degeneracy of transitions between Rashba-Dresselhaus-split bands, resulting in a Cotton effect. Our study suggests that previous data for spin-coated films largely underestimate the optical chirality and provides quantitative insights into the intrinsic optical properties of chiral perovskites for chiroptical and spintronic applications.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Translation of chirality and asymmetry across structural motifs and length scales plays a fundamental role in nature, enabling unique functionalities in contexts ranging from biological systems to synthetic materials. Here, we introduce a structural chirality transfer across the organic–inorganic interface in two-dimensional hybrid perovskites using appropriate chiral organic cations. The preferred molecular configuration of the chiral spacer cations,R-(+)- orS-(−)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylammonium and their asymmetric hydrogen-bonding interactions with lead bromide-based layers cause symmetry-breaking helical distortions in the inorganic layers, otherwise absent when employing a racemic mixture of organic spacers. First-principles modeling predicts a substantial bulk Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-splitting in the inorganic-derived conduction band with opposite spin textures betweenR- andS-hybrids due to the broken inversion symmetry and strong spin-orbit coupling. The ability to break symmetry using chirality transfer from one structural unit to another provides a synthetic design paradigm for emergent properties, including Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-polarization for hybrid perovskite spintronics and related applications.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden−Popper organic-inorganic halide perovskites such as (2D)-phenethylammonium lead iodide (2D-PEPI) have layered structure that resembles multiple quantum wells (MQW). The heavy atoms in 2D-PEPI contribute a large spin-orbit coupling that influences the electronic band structure. Upon breaking the inversion symmetry, a spin splitting (‘Rashba splitting’) occurs in the electronic bands. We have studied the spin splitting in 2D-PEPI single crystals using the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE). We confirm the existence of Rashba splitting at the electronic band extrema of 35±10 meV, and identify the main inversion symmetry breaking direction perpendicular to the MQW planes. The CPGE action spectrum above the bandgap reveals spin-polarized photocurrent generated by ultrafast relaxation of excited photocarriers separated in momentum space. Whereas the helicity dependent photocurrent with below-gap excitation is due to spin-galvanic effect of the ionized spin-polarized excitons, where spin polarization occurs in the spin-split bands due to asymmetric spin-flip.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    The growth of epitaxial semiconductors and oxides has long since revolutionized the electronics and optics fields, and continues to be exploited to uncover new physics stemming from quantum interactions. While the recent emergence of halide perovskites offers exciting new opportunities for a range of thin‐film electronics, the principles of epitaxy have yet to be applied to this new class of materials and the full potential of these materials is still not yet known. In this work, single‐domain inorganic halide perovskite epitaxy is demonstrated. This is enabled by reactive vapor phase deposition onto single crystal metal halide substrates with congruent ionic interactions. For the archetypical halide perovskite, cesium tin bromide, two epitaxial phases, a cubic phase and tetragonal phase, are uncovered which emerge via stoichiometry control that are both stabilized with vastly differing lattice constants and accommodated via epitaxial rotation. This epitaxial growth is exploited to demonstrate multilayer 2D quantum wells of a halide‐perovskite system. This work ultimately unlocks new routes to push halide perovskites to their full potential.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Crystalline metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have provided unprecedented advances in interdisciplinary fields of materials, electronics, and photonics. While crystallinity offers numerous advantages, the ability to access a glassy state with distinct properties provides unique opportunities to extend the associated structure–property relationship, as well as broaden the application space for MHPs. Amorphous analogs for MHPs have so far been restricted to high pressures, limiting detailed studies and applications. Here, a 2D MHP is structurally tailored using bulky chiral organic cations to exhibit an unusual confluence of exceptionally low melting temperature (175 °C) and inhibited crystallization. The chiral MHP can thus be melt‐quenched into a stable glassy state, otherwise inhibited in the analogous racemic MHP. Facile and reversible switching between glassy and crystalline states is demonstrated for the chiral MHP, each with distinct optoelectronic character, opening new opportunities for applications including, for example nonvolatile memory, optical communication, and neuromorphic computing.

    more » « less