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- Genome Biology and Evolution
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- 1080 to 1086
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Hoffmann, Federico (Ed.)Abstract The first insect genome assembly (Drosophila melanogaster) was published two decades ago. Today, nuclear genome assemblies are available for a staggering 601 insect species representing 20 orders. In this study, we analyzed the most-contiguous assembly for each species and provide a “state-of-the-field” perspective, emphasizing taxonomic representation, assembly quality, gene completeness, and sequencing technologies. Relative to species richness, genomic efforts have been biased toward four orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, and Phasmatodea), Coleoptera are underrepresented, and 11 orders still lack a publicly available genome assembly. The average insect genome assembly is 439.2 Mb in length with 87.5% of single-copy benchmarking genes intact. Most notable has been the impact of long-read sequencing; assemblies that incorporate long reads are ∼48× more contiguous than those that do not. We offer four recommendations as we collectively continue building insect genome resources: 1) seek better integration between independent research groups and consortia, 2) balance future sampling between filling taxonomic gaps and generating data for targeted questions, 3) take advantage of long-read sequencing technologies, and 4) expand and improve gene annotations.
INTRODUCTION Transposable elements (TEs), repeat expansions, and repeat-mediated structural rearrangements play key roles in chromosome structure and species evolution, contribute to human genetic variation, and substantially influence human health through copy number variants, structural variants, insertions, deletions, and alterations to gene transcription and splicing. Despite their formative role in genome stability, repetitive regions have been relegated to gaps and collapsed regions in human genome reference GRCh38 owing to the technological limitations during its development. The lack of linear sequence in these regions, particularly in centromeres, resulted in the inability to fully explore the repeat content of the human genome in the context of both local and regional chromosomal environments. RATIONALE Long-read sequencing supported the complete, telomere-to-telomere (T2T) assembly of the pseudo-haploid human cell line CHM13. This resource affords a genome-scale assessment of all human repetitive sequences, including TEs and previously unknown repeats and satellites, both within and outside of gaps and collapsed regions. Additionally, a complete genome enables the opportunity to explore the epigenetic and transcriptional profiles of these elements that are fundamental to our understanding of chromosome structure, function, and evolution. Comparative analyses reveal modes of repeat divergence, evolution, and expansion or contraction with locus-level resolution. RESULTS We implementedmore »
High-Quality Genome Assembly and Comprehensive Transcriptome of the Painted Lady Butterfly Vanessa carduiLavrov, Dennis (Ed.)Abstract The painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui, has the longest migration routes, the widest hostplant diversity, and one of the most complex wing patterns of any insect. Due to minimal culturing requirements, easily characterized wing pattern elements, and technical feasibility of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, V. cardui is emerging as a functional genomics model for diverse research programs. Here, we report a high-quality, annotated genome assembly of the V. cardui genome, generated using 84× coverage of PacBio long-read data, which we assembled into 205 contigs with a total length of 425.4 Mb (N50 = 10.3 Mb). The genome was very complete (single-copy complete Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs [BUSCO] 97%), with contigs assembled into presumptive chromosomes using synteny analyses. Our annotation used embryonic, larval, and pupal transcriptomes, and 20 transcriptomes across five different wing developmental stages. Gene annotations showed a high level of accuracy and completeness, with 14,437 predicted protein-coding genes. This annotated genome assembly constitutes an important resource for diverse functional genomic studies ranging from the developmental genetic basis of butterfly color pattern, to coevolution with diverse hostplants.
A chromosome-level genome assembly and annotation of the desert horned lizard, Phrynosoma platyrhinos , provides insight into chromosomal rearrangements among reptiles
The increasing number of chromosome-level genome assemblies has advanced our knowledge and understanding of macroevolutionary processes. Here, we introduce the genome of the desert horned lizard, Phrynosoma platyrhinos, an iguanid lizard occupying extreme desert conditions of the American southwest. We conduct analysis of the chromosomal structure and composition of this species and compare these features across genomes of 12 other reptiles (5 species of lizards, 3 snakes, 3 turtles, and 1 bird).
The desert horned lizard genome was sequenced using Illumina paired-end reads and assembled and scaffolded using Dovetail Genomics Hi-C and Chicago long-range contact data. The resulting genome assembly has a total length of 1,901.85 Mb, scaffold N50 length of 273.213 Mb, and includes 5,294 scaffolds. The chromosome-level assembly is composed of 6 macrochromosomes and 11 microchromosomes. A total of 20,764 genes were annotated in the assembly. GC content and gene density are higher for microchromosomes than macrochromosomes, while repeat element distributions show the opposite trend. Pathway analyses provide preliminary evidence that microchromosome and macrochromosome gene content are functionally distinct. Synteny analysis indicates that large microchromosome blocks are conserved among closely related species, whereas macrochromosomes show evidence of frequent fusion and fission events among reptiles, even between closelymore »
Our results demonstrate dynamic karyotypic evolution across Reptilia, with frequent inferred splits, fusions, and rearrangements that have resulted in shuffling of chromosomal blocks between macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. Our analyses also provide new evidence for distinct gene content and chromosomal structure between microchromosomes and macrochromosomes within reptiles.
The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1896) is an economically, culturally, and ecologically important species found across the temperate and tropical North and South American Atlantic coast. A reference genome will enable research for this high-value species. Initial assembly combined 200× coverage Illumina paired-end reads, a 60× 8 kb mate-paired library, and 50× PacBio data using the MaSuRCA assembler resulting in a 985 Mb assembly with a scaffold N50 of 153 kb. Dovetail Chicago and HiC sequencing with the 3d DNA assembler and Juicebox assembly tools were then used for chromosome scaffolding. The 50 largest scaffolds span 810 Mb are 1.5–37 Mb long and have a repeat content of 36%. The 190 Mb unplaced sequence is in 3921 sequences over 10 kb with a repeat content of 68%. The final assembly N50 is 18.9 Mb for scaffolds and 9317 bases for contigs. Of arthropod BUSCO, ∼88% (888/1013) were complete and single copies. Using 309 million RNAseq read pairs from 12 different tissues and developmental stages, 25,249 protein-coding genes were predicted. Between C. sapidus and Portunus trituberculatus genomes, 41 of 50 large scaffolds had high nucleotide identity and protein-coding synteny, but 9 scaffolds in both assemblies were not clear matches. The protein-coding genes included 9423 one-to-one putative orthologs, ofmore »