skip to main content

Title: Generation of helical topological exciton-polaritons

Topological photonics in strongly coupled light-matter systems offer the possibility for fabricating tunable optical devices that are robust against disorder and defects. Topological polaritons, i.e., hybrid exciton-photon quasiparticles, have been proposed to demonstrate scatter-free chiral propagation, but their experimental realization to date has been at deep cryogenic temperatures and under strong magnetic fields. We demonstrate helical topological polaritons up to 200 kelvin without external magnetic field in monolayer WS2excitons coupled to a nontrivial photonic crystal protected by pseudo time-reversal symmetry. The helical nature of the topological polaritons, where polaritons with opposite helicities are transported to opposite directions, is verified. Topological helical polaritons provide a platform for developing robust and tunable polaritonic spintronic devices for classical and quantum information-processing applications.

 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Award ID(s):
1936276 1842612
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 600-604
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Chiral magnets have recently emerged as hosts for topological spin textures and related transport phenomena, which can find use in next-generation spintronic devices. The coupling between structural chirality and noncollinear magnetism is crucial for the stabilization of complex spin structures such as magnetic skyrmions. Most studies have been focused on the physical properties in homochiral states favored by crystal growth and the absence of long-ranged interactions between domains of opposite chirality. Therefore, effects of the high density of chiral domains and domain boundaries on magnetic states have been rarely explored so far. Herein, we report layered heterochiral Cr1/3TaS2, exhibiting numerous chiral domains forming topological defects and a nanometer-scale helimagnetic order interlocked with the structural chirality. Tuning the chiral domain density, we discovered a macroscopic topological magnetic texture inside each chiral domain that has an appearance of a spiral magnetic superstructure composed of quasiperiodic Néel domain walls. The spirality of this object can have either sign and is decoupled from the structural chirality. In weak, in-plane magnetic fields, it transforms into a nonspiral array of concentric ring domains. Numerical simulations suggest that this magnetic superstructure is stabilized by strains in the heterochiral state favoring noncollinear spins. Our results unveil topological structure/spinmore »couplings in a wide range of different length scales and highly tunable spin textures in heterochiral magnets.

    « less
  2. Topological photonics offers enhanced control over electromagnetic fields by providing a platform for robust trapping and guiding of topological states of light. By combining the strong coupling between topological photons with phonons in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), we demonstrate a platform to control and guide hybrid states of light and lattice vibrations. The observed topological edge states of phonon-polaritons are found to carry nonzero angular momentum locked to their propagation direction, which enables their robust transport. Thus, these topological quasiparticles enable the funneling of infrared phonons mediated by helical infrared photons along arbitrary pathways and across sharp bends, thereby offering opportunities for applications ranging from Raman and vibrational spectroscopy with structured phonon-polaritons to directional heat dissipation.
  3. Abstract The lattice symmetry of a crystal is one of the most important factors in determining its physical properties. Particularly, low-symmetry crystals offer powerful opportunities to control light propagation, polarization and phase 1–4 . Materials featuring extreme optical anisotropy can support a hyperbolic response, enabling coupled light–matter interactions, also known as polaritons, with highly directional propagation and compression of light to deeply sub-wavelength scales 5 . Here we show that monoclinic crystals can support hyperbolic shear polaritons, a new polariton class arising in the mid-infrared to far-infrared due to shear phenomena in the dielectric response. This feature emerges in materials in which the dielectric tensor cannot be diagonalized, that is, in low-symmetry monoclinic and triclinic crystals in which several oscillators with non-orthogonal relative orientations contribute to the optical response 6,7 . Hyperbolic shear polaritons complement previous observations of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in orthorhombic 1,3,4 and hexagonal 8,9 crystal systems, unveiling new features, such as the continuous evolution of their propagation direction with frequency, tilted wavefronts and asymmetric responses. The interplay between diagonal loss and off-diagonal shear phenomena in the dielectric response of these materials has implications for new forms of non-Hermitian and topological photonic states. We anticipate that our resultsmore »will motivate new directions for polariton physics in low-symmetry materials, which include geological minerals 10 , many common oxides 11 and organic crystals 12 , greatly expanding the material base and extending design opportunities for compact photonic devices.« less
  4. Abstract

    Giant spin-orbit torque (SOT) from topological insulators (TIs) provides an energy efficient writing method for magnetic memory, which, however, is still premature for practical applications due to the challenge of the integration with magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Here, we demonstrate a functional TI-MTJ device that could become the core element of the future energy-efficient spintronic devices, such as SOT-based magnetic random-access memory (SOT-MRAM). The state-of-the-art tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 102% and the ultralow switching current density of 1.2 × 105 A cm−2have been simultaneously achieved in the TI-MTJ device at room temperature, laying down the foundation for TI-driven SOT-MRAM. The charge-spin conversion efficiencyθSHin TIs is quantified by both the SOT-induced shift of the magnetic switching field (θSH = 1.59) and the SOT-induced ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) (θSH = 1.02), which is one order of magnitude larger than that in conventional heavy metals. These results inspire a revolution of SOT-MRAM from classical to quantum materials, with great potential to further reduce the energy consumption.

  5. Abstract

    Domain walls in fractional quantum Hall ferromagnets are gapless helical one-dimensional channels formed at the boundaries of topologically distinct quantum Hall (QH) liquids. Naïvely, these helical domain walls (hDWs) constitute two counter-propagating chiral states with opposite spins. Coupled to an s-wave superconductor, helical channels are expected to lead to topological superconductivity with high order non-Abelian excitations1–3. Here we investigate transport properties of hDWs in theν = 2/3 fractional QH regime. Experimentally we found that current carried by hDWs is substantially smaller than the prediction of the naïve model. Luttinger liquid theory of the system reveals redistribution of currents between quasiparticle charge, spin and neutral modes, and predicts the reduction of the hDW current. Inclusion of spin-non-conserving tunneling processes reconciles theory with experiment. The theory confirms emergence of spin modes required for the formation of fractional topological superconductivity.