Modulation-based control and locking of lasers, filters and other photonic components is a ubiquitous function across many applications that span the visible to infrared (IR), including atomic, molecular and optical (AMO), quantum sciences, fiber communications, metrology, and microwave photonics. Today, modulators used to realize these control functions consist of high-power bulk-optic components for tuning, sideband modulation, and phase and frequency shifting, while providing low optical insertion loss and operation from DC to 10s of MHz. In order to reduce the size, weight and cost of these applications and improve their scalability and reliability, modulation control functions need to be implemented in a low loss, wafer-scale CMOS-compatible photonic integration platform. The silicon nitride integration platform has been successful at realizing extremely low waveguide losses across the visible to infrared and components including high performance lasers, filters, resonators, stabilization cavities, and optical frequency combs. Yet, progress towards implementing low loss, low power modulators in the silicon nitride platform, while maintaining wafer-scale process compatibility has been limited. Here we report a significant advance in integration of a piezo-electric (PZT, lead zirconate titanate) actuated micro-ring modulation in a fully-planar, wafer-scale silicon nitride platform, that maintains low optical loss (0.03 dB/cm in a 625 µm resonator) at 1550 nm, with an order of magnitude increase in bandwidth (DC - 15 MHz 3-dB and DC - 25 MHz 6-dB) and order of magnitude lower power consumption of 20 nW improvement over prior PZT modulators. The modulator provides a >14 dB extinction ratio (ER) and 7.1 million quality-factor (Q) over the entire 4 GHz tuning range, a tuning efficiency of 162 MHz/V, and delivers the linearity required for control applications with 65.1 dB·Hz2/3and 73.8 dB·Hz2/3third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) at 1 MHz and 10 MHz respectively. We demonstrate two control applications, laser stabilization in a Pound-Drever Hall (PDH) lock loop, reducing laser frequency noise by 40 dB, and as a laser carrier tracking filter. This PZT modulator design can be extended to the visible in the ultra-low loss silicon nitride platform with minor waveguide design changes. This integration of PZT modulation in the ultra-low loss silicon nitride waveguide platform enables modulator control functions in a wide range of visible to IR applications such as atomic and molecular transition locking for cooling, trapping and probing, controllable optical frequency combs, low-power external cavity tunable lasers, quantum computers, sensors and communications, atomic clocks, and tunable ultra-low linewidth lasers and ultra-low phase noise microwave synthesizers.
We propose a nanogap-enhanced phase-change waveguide with silicon PIN heaters. Thanks to the enhanced light-matter interaction in the nanogap, the proposed structure exhibits strong attenuation (Δ
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Optical Society of America
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Optics Express
- 1094-4087; OPEXFF
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- Article No. 37265
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Introduction:Current brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) primarily rely on visual feedback. However, visual feedback may not be sufficient for applications such as movement restoration, where somatosensory feedback plays a crucial role. For electrocorticography (ECoG)-based BCIs, somatosensory feedback can be elicited by cortical surface electro-stimulation . However, simultaneous cortical stimulation and recording is challenging due to stimulation artifacts. Depending on the orientation of stimulating electrodes, their distance to the recording site, and the stimulation intensity, these artifacts may overwhelm the neural signals of interest and saturate the recording bioamplifiers, making it impossible to recover the underlying information . To understand how these factors affect artifact propagation, we performed a preliminary characterization of ECoG signals during cortical stimulation.Materials/Methods/ResultsECoG electrodes were implanted in a 39-year old epilepsy patient as shown in Fig. 1. Pairs of adjacent electrodes were stimulated as a part of language cortical mapping. For each stimulating pair, a charge-balanced biphasic square pulse train of current at 50 Hz was delivered for five seconds at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mA. ECoG signals were recorded at 512 Hz. The signals were then high-pass filtered (≥1.5 Hz, zero phase), and the 5-second stimulation epochs were segmented. Within each epoch, artifact-induced peaks were detected for each electrode, except the stimulating pair, where signals were clipped due to amplifier saturation. These peaks were phase-locked across electrodes and were 20 ms apart, thus matching the pulse train frequency. The response was characterized by calculating the median peak within the 5-second epochs. Fig. 1 shows a representative response of the right temporal grid (RTG), with the stimulation channel at RTG electrodes 14 and 15. It also shows a hypothetical amplifier saturation contour of an implantable, bi-directional, ECoG-based BCI prototype , assuming the supply voltage of 2.2 V and a gain of 66 dB. Finally, we quantify the worstcase scenario by calculating the largest distance between the saturation contour and the midpoint of each stimulating channel.Discussion:Our results indicate that artifact propagation follows a dipole potential distribution with the extent of the saturation region (the interior of the white contour) proportional to the stimulation amplitude. In general, the artifacts propagated farthest when a 10 mA current was applied with the saturation regions extending from 17 to 32 mm away from the midpoint of the dipole. Consistent with the electric dipole model, this maximum spread happened along the direction of the dipole moment. An exception occurred at stimulation channel RTG11-16, for which an additional saturation contour emerged away from the dipole contour (not shown), extending the saturation region to 41 mm. Also, the worst-case scenario was observed at 6 mA stimulation amplitude. This departure could be a sign of a nonlinear, switch-like behavior, wherein additional conduction pathways could become engaged in response to sufficiently high stimulation.Significance:While ECoG stimulation is routinely performed in the clinical setting, quantitative studies of the resulting signals are lacking. Our preliminary study demonstrates that stimulation artifacts largely obey dipole distributions, suggesting that the dipole model could be used to predict artifact propagation. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether these results hold across other subjects and combinations of stimulation/recording grids. Once completed, these studies will reveal practical design constraints for future implantable bi-directional ECoG-based BCIs. These include parameters such as the distances between and relative orientations of the stimulating and recording electrodes, the choice of the stimulating electrodes, the optimal placement of the reference electrode, and the maximum stimulation amplitude. These findings would also have important implications for the design of custom, low-power bioamplifiers for implantable bi-directional ECoG-based BCIs.References: Hiremath, S. V., et al. "Human perception of electrical stimulation on the surface of somatosensory cortex." PloS one 12.5 (2017): e0176020. Rouse, A. G., et al. "A chronic generalized bi-directional brain-machine interface." Journal of Neural Engineering 8.3 (2011): 036018more » « less