skip to main content

Title: Households’ Intended Evacuation Transportation Behavior in Response to Earthquake and Tsunami Hazard in a Cascadia Subduction Zone City
Earthquakes along the Cascadia subduction zone would generate a local tsunami that could arrive at coastlines within minutes. Few studies provide empirical evidence to understand the potential behaviors of local residents during this emergency. To fill this knowledge gap, this study examines residents’ perceptions and intended evacuation behaviors in response to an earthquake and tsunami, utilizing a survey sent to households in Seaside, OR. The results show that the majority of respondents can correctly identify whether their house is inside or outside a tsunami inundation zone. Older respondents are more likely to identify this correctly regardless of any previous disaster evacuation experience or community tenure. The majority of respondents (69%) say they would evacuate in the event of a tsunami. Factors influencing this choice include age, motor ability, access to transportation, and trust in infrastructure resiliency or traffic conditions. While the City of Seaside actively promotes evacuation by foot, 38% of respondents still state they would use a motor vehicle to evacuate. Females and older respondents are more likely to evacuate by foot. Respondents with both higher confidence in their knowledge of disaster evacuation and higher income are more likely to indicate less time needed to evacuate than others. Generally, more » respondents are more likely to lead rather than follow during an evacuation, especially respondents who report being more prepared for an evacuation and who have a higher perceived risk. This study showcases a unique effort at empirically analyzing human tsunami evacuation lead or follow choice behavior. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1826407
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10205097
Journal Name:
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
Volume:
2674
Issue:
7
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
99 to 114
ISSN:
0361-1981
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. This study analyzes 488 household residents’ responses to the 2018 Indonesia M7.5 earthquake and tsunami. Comparison of this event with past earthquake and tsunami events, such as the 2009 Samoa (M8.1), 2011 Christchurch (M6.3), and 2011 Tohoku (M9.0) events, identifies commonalities and differences among people’s responses to these events. The results show that many Palu respondents failed to recognize strong earthquake ground motion as an environmental cue to a tsunami, but this was partially offset by an informal peer warning network. Most of the warnings only mentioned one of the six recommended message elements—the tsunami hazard. However, this brief message might have been adequate for many people if they could infer the certainty, severity, and immediacy of the threat, and appropriate evacuation modes, routes, and destinations. Unlike two comparison cases, some Palu respondents actually began their evacuation later than they expected the tsunami to strike. This might be due to spending too much time milling (seeking additional information, relaying warnings, reuniting families, and preparing to evacuate)—given the tsunami’s extremely rapid onset. This finding underscores the need for coastal emergency managers to promote evacuation preparedness for near-field tsunamis in which households pack Grab and Go kits in advance, warn others whilemore »evacuating, and plan in advance where to reunite household members who must evacuate separately.« less
  2. We analyzed data from a survey administered to 1,212 respondents living in superstorm Hurricane Sandy-affected areas. We estimated the effect of having experienced hurricane-induced disruptions to utility services, such as electricity, water, gas, phone service, and public transportation, on having an evacuation plan. Around 39% of respondents reported having an evacuation plan in case a hurricane affects their neighborhood this year. Respondents who had experienced disruptions to electricity supply had an approximately 11 percentage-point higher likelihood of having an evacuation plan than those who had experienced no such disruptions. Respondents who had experienced monetary losses from Hurricane Sandy had around a five percentage-point higher likelihood of having an evacuation plan compared with those who had not. Among control variables, prior evacuation, distance to the coastline, residence in a flood zone, concern about the impacts of future natural disaster events, had window protection, and household members being disabled, each had an association with residents’ future evacuation planning and hurricane preparedness. In light of these findings, we discuss the policy implications of our findings for improving disaster management in hurricane-prone areas.
  3. Understanding human movements in the face of natural disasters is critical for disaster evacuation planning, management, and relief. Despite the clear need for such work, these studies are rare in the literature due to the lack of available data measuring spatiotemporal mobility patterns during actual disasters. This study explores the spatiotemporal patterns of evacuation travels by leveraging users’ location information from millions of tweets posted in the hours prior and concurrent to Hurricane Matthew. Our analysis yields several practical insights, including the following: (1) We identified trajectories of Twitter users moving out of evacuation zones once the evacuation was ordered and then returning home after the hurricane passed. (2) Evacuation zone residents produced an unusually large number of tweets outside evacuation zones during the evacuation order period. (3) It took several days for the evacuees in both South Carolina and Georgia to leave their residential areas after the mandatory evacuation was ordered, but Georgia residents typically took more time to return home. (4) Evacuees are more likely to choose larger cities farther away as their destinations for safety instead of nearby small cities. (5) Human movements during the evacuation follow a log-normal distribution.
  4. Abstract Major disasters such as extreme weather events can magnify and exacerbate pre-existing social disparities, with disadvantaged populations bearing disproportionate costs. Despite the implications for equity and emergency planning, we lack a quantitative understanding of how these social fault lines translate to different behaviours in large-scale emergency contexts. Here we investigate this problem in the context of Hurricane Harvey, using over 30 million anonymized GPS records from over 150,000 opted-in users in the Greater Houston Area to quantify patterns of disaster-inflicted relocation activities before, during, and after the shock. We show that evacuation distance is highly homogenous across individuals from different types of neighbourhoods classified by race and wealth, obeying a truncated power-law distribution. Yet here the similarities end: we find that both race and wealth strongly impact evacuation patterns, with disadvantaged minority populations less likely to evacuate than wealthier white residents. Finally, there are considerable discrepancies in terms of departure and return times by race and wealth, with strong social cohesion among evacuees from advantaged neighbourhoods in their destination choices. These empirical findings bring new insights into mobility and evacuations, providing policy recommendations for residents, decision-makers, and disaster managers alike.
  5. During emergencies, it is often necessary to evacuate vulnerable people to safer places to reduce loss of lives and cope with human suffering. Shelters are publically available places to evacuate, especially for people who do not have any other choices. This paper overviews emergency shelter planning in disaster mitigation and preparation and discusses the need for better responding to people who need to evacuate during emergencies. Recent evacuation studies pay attention to integrating social factors into evacuation modeling for better prediction of evacuation decisions. Our goal is to address the impact of social behavior on the sheltering choices of evacuees and to explore the potential contributions of including social network characteristics in the decision-making process of authorities. We present the shelter utilization problem in South Carolina during Hurricane Florence and discuss an agent-based modeling approach that considers social community structures in modeling the shelter choice behavior of socially connected individuals