- Archibald, John
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Genome Biology and Evolution
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 2196 to 2210
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Analysis of Fungal Genomes Reveals Commonalities of Intron Gain or Loss and Functions in Intron-Poor SpeciesOuangraoua, Aida (Ed.)Abstract Previous evolutionary reconstructions have concluded that early eukaryotic ancestors including both the last common ancestor of eukaryotes and of all fungi had intron-rich genomes. By contrast, some extant eukaryotes have few introns, underscoring the complex histories of intron–exon structures, and raising the question as to why these few introns are retained. Here, we have used recently available fungal genomes to address a variety of questions related to intron evolution. Evolutionary reconstruction of intron presence and absence using 263 diverse fungal species supports the idea that massive intron reduction through intron loss has occurred in multiple clades. The intron densities estimated in various fungal ancestors differ from zero to 7.6 introns per 1 kb of protein-coding sequence. Massive intron loss has occurred not only in microsporidian parasites and saccharomycetous yeasts, but also in diverse smuts and allies. To investigate the roles of the remaining introns in highly-reduced species, we have searched for their special characteristics in eight intron-poor fungi. Notably, the introns of ribosome-associated genes RPL7 and NOG2 have conserved positions; both intron-containing genes encoding snoRNAs. Furthermore, both the proteins and snoRNAs are involved in ribosome biogenesis, suggesting that the expression of the protein-coding genes and noncoding snoRNAs may be functionallymore »
CHD chromatin remodeling protein diversification yields novel clades and domains absent in classic model organismsHoffmann, Federico (Ed.)Chromatin remodelers play a fundamental role in the assembly of chromatin, regulation of transcription, and DNA repair. Biochemical and functional characterization of the CHD family of chromatin remodelers from a variety of model organisms have shown that these remodelers participate in a wide range of activities. However, because the evolutionary history of CHD homologs is unclear, it is difficult to predict which of these activities are broadly conserved and which have evolved more recently in individual eukaryotic lineages. Here, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 8,042 CHD homologs from 1,894 species to create a model for the evolution of this family across eukaryotes with a particular focus on the timing of duplications that gave rise to the diverse copies observed in plants, animals, and fungi. Our analysis confirms that the three major subfamilies of CHD remodelers originated in the eukaryotic last common ancestor, and subsequent losses occurred independently in different lineages. Improved taxon sampling identified several subfamilies of CHD remodelers in plants that were absent or highly divergent in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas the timing of CHD subfamily expansions in vertebrates correspond to whole genome duplication events, the mechanisms underlying CHD diversification in land plants appears moremore »
Opinion: Genetic Conflict With Mobile Elements Drives Eukaryotic Genome Evolution, and Perhaps Also EukaryogenesisOrive, Maria (Ed.)Abstract Through analyses of diverse microeukaryotes, we have previously argued that eukaryotic genomes are dynamic systems that rely on epigenetic mechanisms to distinguish germline (i.e., DNA to be inherited) from soma (i.e., DNA that undergoes polyploidization, genome rearrangement, etc.), even in the context of a single nucleus. Here, we extend these arguments by including two well-documented observations: (1) eukaryotic genomes interact frequently with mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like viruses and transposable elements (TEs), creating genetic conflict, and (2) epigenetic mechanisms regulate MGEs. Synthesis of these ideas leads to the hypothesis that genetic conflict with MGEs contributed to the evolution of a dynamic eukaryotic genome in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA), and may have contributed to eukaryogenesis (i.e., may have been a driver in the evolution of FECA, the first eukaryotic common ancestor). Sex (i.e., meiosis) may have evolved within the context of the development of germline–soma distinctions in LECA, as this process resets the germline genome by regulating/eliminating somatic (i.e., polyploid, rearranged) genetic material. Our synthesis of these ideas expands on hypotheses of the origin of eukaryotes by integrating the roles of MGEs and epigenetics.
Globins in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii shed new light on hemoglobin evolution in bilaterians
How vascular systems and their respiratory pigments evolved is still debated. While many animals present a vascular system, hemoglobin exists as a blood pigment only in a few groups (vertebrates, annelids, a few arthropod and mollusk species). Hemoglobins are formed of globin sub-units, belonging to multigene families, in various multimeric assemblages. It was so far unclear whether hemoglobin families from different bilaterian groups had a common origin.
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Platynereis dumerilii,a species with a slow evolving genome. Platynereisexhibits a closed vascular system filled with extracellular hemoglobin. Platynereisgenome and transcriptomes reveal a family of 19 globins, nine of which are predicted to be extracellular. Extracellular globins are produced by specialized cells lining the vessels of the segmental appendages of the worm, serving as gills, and thus likely participate in the assembly of a previously characterized annelid-specific giant hemoglobin. Extracellular globin mRNAs are absent in smaller juveniles, accumulate considerably in growing and more active worms and peak in swarming adults, as the need for O2culminates. Next, we conducted a metazoan-wide phylogenetic analysis of globins using data from complete genomes. We establish that five globin genes (stem globins) were present in the last common ancestor ofmore » Conclusions
We uncover a complex “pre-blood” evolution of globins, with an early gene radiation in ancestral bilaterians. Circulating hemoglobins in various bilaterian groups evolved convergently, presumably in correlation with animal size and activity. However, all hemoglobins derive from a clade I globin, or cytoglobin, probably involved in intracellular O2transit and regulation. The annelid
Platynereisis remarkable in having a large family of extracellular blood globins, while retaining all clades of ancestral bilaterian globins.
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification required for transposable element (TE) silencing, genome stability, and genomic imprinting. Although DNA methylation has been intensively studied, the dynamic nature of methylation among different species has just begun to be understood. Here we summarize the recent progress in research on the wide variation of DNA methylation in different plants, organs, tissues, and cells; dynamic changes of methylation are also reported during plant growth and development as well as changes in response to environmental stresses. Overall DNA methylation is quite diverse among species, and it occurs in CG, CHG, and CHH (H = A, C, or T) contexts of genes and TEs in angiosperms. Moderately expressed genes are most likely methylated in gene bodies. Methylation levels decrease significantly just upstream of the transcription start site and around transcription termination sites; its levels in the promoter are inversely correlated with the expression of some genes in plants. Methylation can be altered by different environmental stimuli such as pathogens and abiotic stresses. It is likely that methylation existed in the common eukaryotic ancestor before fungi, plants and animals diverged during evolution. In summary, DNA methylation patterns in angiosperms are complex, dynamic, and an integral part ofmore »