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Title: Formation of nanocrystalline manganese oxide in flames: oxide phase governed by classical nucleation and size-dependent equilibria
Particle nucleation and growth of crystalline manganese oxide nanoparticles was examined in a complementary experimental and modelling study. Gas-to-particle conversion occurred in a flame-assisted chemical vapor deposition process whereby a premixed stagnation flame drove the high-temperature synthesis. The structure of the stagnation flame was computed using pseudo one-dimensional and axisymmetric two-dimensional methods to assess the accuracy of using a faster similarity-based calculation for flame-deposition design. The pseudo one-dimensional computation performs reasonably well for the narrow aspect ratio stagnation flow currently studied as evidenced by reasonable agreement between the measured flame position and both computational methods. Manganese oxide nanoparticles having II, II–III, III or IV oxidation states were observed depending on the flame conditions. These observations may be explained by size-dependent equilibria between nano-scale manganese oxide and surrounding gas-phase oxygen. Local equilibrium was assessed during the particle temperature–oxygen–time history to gain insight into oxide formation in the flame. Analysis of the saturation ratio for formation of condensed MnO in the flame indicates that nucleation may be limited by a thermodynamic barrier. This nucleation mechanism is supported by measured particle sizes smaller than what would be expected from a coagulation limited growth process. Nanocrystalline MnO, reported here for the first time by more » flame synthesis, was obtained in oxygen lean flames. MnO 2 is the phase predicted to be thermally stable as the particles approach the deposition surface, yet other metastable oxide phases were produced in many of the flames examined. In fact, MnO 2 was only observed in the smallest particle size conditions which may indicate that high cooling rates limit phase equilibrium to less massive particles. « less
Authors:
;
Award ID(s):
1841357
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10207765
Journal Name:
CrystEngComm
Volume:
22
Issue:
33
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
5509 to 5521
ISSN:
1466-8033
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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