skip to main content

Title: Multifaceted Sn–Sn bonding in the solid state. Synthesis and structural characterization of four new Ca–Li–Sn compounds
Four novel ternary phases have been prepared in the system Ca–Li–Sn using both the metal flux method and conventional high-temperature synthesis. Each of the obtained compositions represents its own (new) structure type, and the structures feature distinct polyanionic Sn units. Ca 4 LiSn 6 (space group Pbcm , Pearson symbol oP 44) accommodates infinite chains, made up of cyclopentane-like [Sn 5 ]-rings, which are bridged by Sn atoms. The Sn atoms in this structure are two- and three-bonded. The anionic substructure of Ca 9 Li 6+x Sn 13–x ( x ≈ 0.28, space group C 2/ m , Pearson symbol mS 56) displays extensive mixing of Li and Sn and combination of single-bonded and hypervalent interactions between the Sn atoms. Hypervalent bonding is also pronounced in the structure of the third compound, Ca 2 LiSn 3 (space group Pmm 2, Pearson symbol oP 18) with quasi-two-dimensional polyanionic subunits and a variety of coordination environments of the Sn atoms. One-dimensional [Sn 10 ]-chains with an intricate topology of cis - and trans -Sn–Sn bonds exist in the structure of Ca 9–x Li 2 Sn 10 ( x ≈ 0.16, space group C 2/ m , Pearson symbol mS 42), and the more » Sn–Sn bonding in this case demonstrates the characteristics of an intermediate between single- and double- bond-order. The peculiarities of the bonding are discussed in the context of the Zintl approach, which captures the essence of the main chemical interactions. The electronic structures of all four compounds have also been analyzed in full detail using first-principles calculations. « less
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Dalton Transactions
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
14398 to 14407
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. A novel antiferromagnetic semiconductor, Eu 3 Sn 2 P 4 , has been discovered. Single crystals of Eu 3 Sn 2 P 4 were prepared using the Sn self-flux method. The crystal structure determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction shows that Eu 3 Sn 2 P 4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic structure with the space group Cmca (Pearson Symbol, oP 216). Six Sn–Sn dimers connected by P atoms form a Sn 12 P 24 crown-shaped cluster with a Eu atom located in the center. Magnetization measurements indicate that the system orders antiferromagnetically below a T N ∼14 K at amore »low field and undergoes a metamagnetic transition at a high field when T < T N . The effective magnetic moment is 7.41(3) μ B per Eu, corresponding to Eu 2+ . The electric resistivity reveals a non-monotonic temperature dependence with non-metallic behavior below ∼60 K, consistent with the band structure calculations. By fitting the data using the thermally activated resistivity formula, we estimate the energy gap to be ∼0.14 eV. Below T N , the resistivity tends to saturate, suggesting the reduction of charge-spin scattering.« less
  2. In an attempt to grow 8-hydroxyquinoline–acetaminophen co-crystals from equimolar amounts of conformers in a chloroform–ethanol solvent mixture at room temperature, the title compound, C 9 H 7 NO, was obtained. The molecule is planar, with the hydroxy H atom forming an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, molecules form centrosymmetric dimers via two O—H...N hydrogen bonds. Thus, the hydroxy H atoms are involved in bifurcated O—H...N hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a central planar four-membered N 2 H 2 ring. The dimers are bound by intermolecular π–π stacking [the shortest C...C distance is 3.2997 (17) Å] and C—H...π interactionsmore »into a three-dimensional framework. The crystal grown represents a new monoclinic polymorph in the space group P 2 1 / n . The molecular structure of the present monoclinic polymorph is very similar to that of the orthorhombic polymorph (space group Fdd 2) studied previously [Roychowdhury et al. (1978). Acta Cryst. B 34 , 1047–1048; Banerjee & Saha (1986). Acta Cryst. C 42 , 1408–1411]. The structures of the two polymorphs are distinguished by the different geometries of the hydrogen-bonded dimers, which in the crystal of the orthorhombic polymorph possess twofold axis symmetry, with the central N 2 H 2 ring adopting a butterfly conformation.« less
  3. The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-carboxylic acid), C 6 H 6 O 5 , which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intramolecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxopropanoic acid), C 3 H 4 O 3 , at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B 33 , 210–212]. In zymonic acid, the hydroxylactone ring ismore »close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0108 Å) and the dihedral angle between the ring and the plane formed by the bonds of the methyl and carboxylic acid carbon atoms to the ring is 88.68 (7)°. The torsion angle of the carboxylic acid group relative to the ring is 12.04 (16)°. The pyruvic acid molecule is almost planar, having a dihedral angle between the carboxylic acid and methyl-ketone groups of 3.95 (6)°. Intermolecular interactions in both crystal structures are dominated by hydrogen bonding. The common R 2 2 (8) hydrogen-bonding motif links carboxylic acid groups on adjacent molecules in both structures. In zymonic acid, this results in dimers about a crystallographic twofold of space group C 2/ c , which forces the carboxylic acid group to be disordered exactly 50:50, which scrambles the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups and gives an apparent equalization of the C—O bond lengths [1.2568 (16) and 1.2602 (16) Å]. The other hydrogen bonds in zymonic acid (O—H...O and weak C—H...O), link molecules across a 2 1 -screw axis, and generate an R 2 2 (9) motif. These hydrogen-bonding interactions propagate to form extended pleated sheets in the ab plane. Stacking of these zigzag sheets along c involves only van der Waals contacts. In pyruvic acid, inversion-related molecules are linked into R 2 2 (8) dimers, with van der Waals interactions between dimers as the only other intermolecular contacts.« less
  4. null (Ed.)
    The title compound, [Cu 2 (C 19 H 23 N 7 O)(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 4 ] n , was obtained via reaction of copper(II) acetate with the coordinating ligand, 6-ethoxy- N 2 , N 4 -bis[2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine. The crystallized product adopts the monoclinic P 2 1 / c space group. The metal core exhibits a paddle-wheel structure typical for dicopper tetraacetate units, with triazine and pyridyl nitrogen atoms from different ligands coordinating to the two axial positions of the paddle wheel in an asymmetric manner. This forms a coordination polymer with the segments of the polymer createdmore »by the c -glide of the P 2 1 / c setting of the space group. The resulting chains running along the c -axis direction are held together by intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding. These chains are further packed by dispersion forces, producing an extended three-dimensional structure.« less
  5. All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have garnered increasing attention due to the enhanced safety, featuring nonflammable solid electrolytes as well as the potential to achieve high energy density. 1 The advancement of the ASSBs is expected to provide, arguably, the most straightforward path towards practical, high-energy, and rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes. 1 However, the sluggish ion transmission at the cathode-electrolyte (solid/solid) interface would result in the high resistant at the contact and limit the practical implementation of these all solid-state materials in real world batteries. 2 Several methods were suggested to enhance the kinetic condition of the ion migration betweenmore »the cathode and the solid electrolyte (SE). 3 A composite strategy that mixes active materials and SEs for the cathode is a general way to decrease the ion transmission barrier at the cathode-electrolyte interface. 3 The active material concentration in the cathode is reduced as much as the SE portion increases by which the energy density of the ASSB is restricted. In addition, the mixing approach generally accompanies lattice mismatches between the cathode active materials and the SE, thus providing only limited improvements, which is imputed by random contacts between the cathode active materials and the SE during the mixing process. Implementing high-pressure for the electrode and electrolyte of ASSB in the assembling process has been verified is a but effective way to boost the ion transmission ability between the cathode active materials and the SE by decreasing the grain boundary impedance. Whereas the short-circuit of the battery would be induced by the mechanical deformation of the electrolyte under high pressure. 4 Herein, we demonstrate a novel way to address the ion transmission problem at the cathode-electrolyte interface in ASSBs. Starting from the cathode configuration, the finite element method (FEM) was employed to evaluate the current concentration and the distribution of the space charge layer at the cathode-electrolyte interface. Hierarchical three-dimensional (HTD) structures are found to have a higher Li + transfer number (t Li+ ), fewer free anions, and the weaker space-charge layer at the cathode-electrolyte interface in the resulting FEM simulation. To take advantage of the HTD structure, stereolithography is adopted as a manufacturing technique and single-crystalline Ni-rich (SCN) materials are selected as the active materials. Next, the manufactured HTD cathode is sintered at 600 °C in an N 2 atmosphere for the carbonization of the resin, which induces sufficient electronic conductivity for the cathode. Then, the gel-like Li 1.4 Al 0.4 Ti 1.6 (PO 4 ) 3 (LATP) precursor is synthesized and filled into the voids of the HTD structure cathode sufficiently. And the filled HTD structure cathodes are sintered at 900 °C to achieve the crystallization of the LATP gel. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is used to unveil the morphology of the cathode-electrolyte interface between the sintered HTD cathode and the in-situ generated electrolyte (LATP). A transient phase has been found generated at the interface and matched with both lattices of the SCN and the SE, accelerating the transmission of the Li-ions, which is further verified by density functional theory calculations. In addition, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy demonstrates the preserved interface between HTD cathode and SEs. Atomic force microscopy is employed to measure the potential image of the cross-sectional interface by the peak force tapping mode. The average potential of modified samples is lower than the sample that mix SCN and SEs simply in the 2D planar structure, which confirms a weakened space charge layer by the enhanced contact capability as well as the ion transmission ability. To see if the demonstrated method is universally applicable, LiNi 0.8 Co 0.1 Mn 0.1 O 2 (NCM811) is selected as the cathode active material and manufactured in the same way as the SCN. The HTD cathode based on NCM811 exhibits higher electrochemical performance compared with the reference sample based on the 2D planar mixing-type cathode. We believe such a demonstrated universal strategy provides a new guideline to engineer the cathode/electrolyte interface by revolutionizing electrode structures that can be applicable to all-solid-state batteries. Figure 1. Schematic of comparing of traditional 2D planar cathode and HTD cathode in ASSB Tikekar, M. D. , et al. , Nature Energy (2016) 1 (9), 16114 Banerjee, A. , et al. , Chem Rev (2020) 120 (14), 6878 Chen, R. , et al. , Chem Rev (2020) 120 (14), 6820 Cheng, X. , et al. , Advanced Energy Materials (2018) 8 (7) Figure 1« less