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Title: Rigid foldability is NP-hard
In this paper, we show that the rigid-foldability of a given crease pattern using all creases is weakly NP-hard by a reduction from the partition problem, and that rigid-foldability with optional creases is NP-hard by a reduction from the 1-in-3 SAT problem. Unlike flat-foldabilty of origami or flexibility of other kinematic linkages, whose complexity originates in the complexity of the layer ordering and possible self-intersection of the material, rigid foldabilltiy from a planar state is hard even though there is no potential self-intersection. In fact, the complexity comes from the combinatorial behavior of the different possible rigid folding configurations at each vertex. The results underpin the fact that it is harder to fold from an unfolded sheet of paper than to unfold a folded state back to a plane, frequently encountered problem when realizing folding-based systems such as self-folding matters and reconfigurable robots.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1906202 2428771
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of computational geometry
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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