- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 2914 to 2925
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ultrafiltration membrane fouling and defouling behavior: EDLVO theory and interface adhesion force analysisTo unravel fouling and defouling mechanisms of protein, saccharides and natural organic matters (NOM) on polymeric membrane during filtration, this study investigated filtration characteristics on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ultrafiltration membranes with bovine serum albumin, dextran, humic acid as model foulants. Membrane fouling and defouling performances were analyzed through monitoring the flux decline during filtration and flux recovery during physical backwash. Physico-chemical properties (e.g., hydrophobicity and surface charge) of PVC membrane and foulants were characterized, which were used in the extended Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (EDLVO) theory to calculate the interaction energies between membrane foulant and foulant-foulant. The results showed that at the later filtration stages the fouling rate was strongly correlated with the deposition rate, which was determined by the interaction energy profile calculated by EDLVO. Moreover, the adhesion forces of membrane–foulant and foulant–foulant were further measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with modified colloidal probes. A positive correlation (R2 =0.845) between particle detachment rate (determined by adhesion force) and defouling rate was developed for BSA and HA foulants that led to cake layer formation. By contrast, dextran defouling rate was off this correlation as dextran partially clogged membrane pores due to its smaller size.
Development of Effective Lipase-Hybrid Nanoflowers Enriched with Carbon and Magnetic Nanomaterials for Biocatalytic TransformationsIn the present study, hybrid nanoflowers (HNFs) based on copper (II) or manganese (II) ions were prepared by a simple method and used as nanosupports for the development of effective nanobiocatalysts through the immobilization of lipase B from Pseudozyma antarctica. The hybrid nanobiocatalysts were characterized by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effect of the addition of carbon-based nanomaterials, namely graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes, as well as magnetic nanoparticles such as maghemite, on the structure, catalytic activity, and operational stability of the hybrid nanobiocatalysts was also investigated. In all cases, the addition of nanomaterials during the preparation of HNFs increased the catalytic activity and the operational stability of the immobilized biocatalyst. Lipase-based magnetic nanoflowers were effectively applied for the synthesis of tyrosol esters in non-aqueous media, such as organic solvents, ionic liquids, and environmental friendly deep eutectic solvents. In such media, the immobilized lipase preserved almost 100% of its initial activity after eight successive catalytic cycles, indicating that these hybrid magnetic nanoflowers can be applied for the development of efficient nanobiocatalytic systems.
Organic solvent filtration is an important industrial process. It is widely used in pharmaceutical manufacturing, chemical processing industry, semiconductor industry, auto assembly etc. Most of the particle filtration studies reported in open literature dealt with aqueous suspension medium. The current work has initiated a study of cross-flow solvent filtration behavior of microporous ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) membranes using 12 nm silica nanoparticles suspended in an aqueous solution containing 25% ethanol. In the constant pressure mode of operation of cross-flow microfiltration (MF), permeate samples were collected at different time intervals. The permeate particle size distribution (PSD) results for different experiments were identical. Particle agglomerates having less than 100 nm size can pass through the membrane; some fouling was observed. The governing fouling mechanisms for tests operated using 3.8×10−3 kg/m3 (3.8 ppm) at 6.9×103 Pag and 1.4×104 Pag were pore blocking. For tests conducted using 3.8×10−3 kg/m3 (3.8 ppm) at 27.6×103 Pag (4 psig) and 1.9×10−3 kg/m3 (1.9 ppm) at 6.9×103, 13.8×103 and 27.6×103 Pag (1, 2 and 4 psig), the mechanism was membrane resistance control. Less particles got embedded in membrane pores in experiments operated using suspensions with lower or higher particle concentrations with a higher transmembrane pressure. This is in goodmore »
Textile waste presents a major burden on the environment, contributing to climate change and chemical pollution as toxic dyes and finishing chemicals enter the environment through landfill leachate. Moreover, the majority of textile waste reaching landfills is discarded clothing, which could be reused or recycled. Here we investigate environmentally benign morphology changing of cotton textiles as a precursor for reintegration into a circular materials economy. At 50 °C using low concentrations of acids and bases, the interfiber structures of woven cotton were successfully degraded when treated with the following sequence of chemical treatment: citric acid, urea, sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium nitrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal separation of the constituent fibers without depolymerization of the cellulose structure, and streaming potential measurements indicate that surface charge effects play a key role in facilitating degradation. The proposed reaction procedures show feasibility of effective waste-fabric recycling processes without chemically intensive processes, in which staple fibers are recovered and can be re-spun into new textiles.
Membrane processes are widely used in industrial applications such water purification, food processing and pharmaceutical manufacturing. During their operation, the accumulation of foulants in membrane pores and on membrane surfaces lead to the reduction in flux, membrane lifetime and increase in operational cost, and the understanding of the fouling phenomenon is important for mitigating these problems. In this paper we report the application of Raman chemical imaging as a means of identify and map foulants on a membrane surface. The surface of a Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was studied by Raman chemical imaging before and after fouling during desalination via membrane distillation. Information about location and concentration of three different salts namely CaSO4, BaSO4 and CaCO3 was studied. The three salts showed different distribution patterns, and their distribution was analyzed by correlation mapping and multivariate curve resolution. It was observed that CaSO4 agglomerated in specific places while the BaSO4 and CaCO3 were more distributed. Raman imaging appears to be a powerful tool for studying membrane foulants and can be effective in identifying the distribution of different species on a membrane surface.