skip to main content

Title: Dual-Loop Frequency Synchronization and Load Regulation using a Discrete Time Model for a 7-Level Switched Capacitor WPT Rectifier
In wireless power transfer (WPT) applications, the multi-level switched capacitor topology achieves significant advantages in terms of efficiency, system loading, THD, and output regulation. The topology requires dual-loop control in order to harness these benefits. First, a small signal discrete time model for the 7-level rectifier WPT system is developed. Then, a control loop is designed that enables the rectifier to regulate DC load voltage by varying its modulation scheme. Next, the WPT carrier frequency is sensed and a phase-locked loop is used in combination with the small signal power stage model to design a closed-loop controller that synchronizes frequency and regulates control phase through adjustments of the switching period. Finally, cross-coupling interactions between the two control loops are modeled, and stable dual-loop operation is shown.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
2020 IEEE 21st Workshop on Control and Modeling for Power Electronics (COMPEL)
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 8
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Active rectifiers enhance WPT systems via tunability, high efficiency, and low waveform distortion. However, utilizing these benefits requires that two circuit characteristics are managed simultaneously: the switching frequency must be synchronized to the transmitter and the output must be regulated. Furthermore, the fundamental benefit of impedance tunability inherent to the active rectifier necessitates that this dual-objective control problem remains stable over a wide range of operating points. Either control loop can be designed in isolation, and under this premise, this work contributes a closed form derivation for the cross-coupling behaviors in the control architecture for a 7-level switched capacitor WPT system. Finally, regions of attenuated cross-coupling effects are identified and used to experimentally demonstrate wide-range control with stable output regulation and frequency synchronization. 
    more » « less
  2. In this paper, a wireless charging architecture employing a multilevel switched-capacitor (MSC) AC-DC rectifier is investigated. The proposed MSC rectifier features a multilevel design which is scalable to accommodate different power ratings and load ranges. The topology showcases advantages for wireless power transfer (WPT) systems in terms of compactness, efficiency, impedance tunability, and harmonic attenuation. The single-stage active topology is capable of varying its low-distortion staircase input voltage to tune the wireless power transfer system for high system-wide efficiency. A 7-level, 20 W prototype is used to verify the WPT loading and loss analysis. The prototype operates at 150 kHz with up to 3:1 step-down conversion ratio to an output voltage of 5.0 V. The experimental peak DC-to-DC efficiency is 93.8% and the rectifier peak efficiency is 98.3%. The rectifier demonstrates low waveform distortion and high efficiency across many WPT loading conditions, solidifying its place as a strong candidate for wireless power applications. 
    more » « less
  3. This work presents a miniaturized wireless power transfer (WPT) system integrated with a neuromodulation headstage for duty-cycled optical stimulation of freely moving rodents. The proposed WPT system is built using the commercially available off-the-shelf components (COTS) for the optogenetic neuromodulation system consisting of a bridge rectifier, a DC-DC converter, an oscillator circuit, an LED driver, and a μLED. The total power consumption of the stimulation system is 14 mW which is provided using the WPT method. The WPT system includes a novel transmitter (TX) coil implemented on a printed circuit board (PCB), and a solenoid receiver (RX) coil wrapped around a customized 3-D printed headstage. The proposed TX coil is designed in such a way that the magnetic field all across the TX coil is sufficient to provide the required power to the optical stimulation system that is worn as a headstage by the freely moving rat. The headstage device's dimension is 18.75 mm × 21.95 mm, weighing 4.75 g. The ratio of the weight of the headstage and rat is 4.75:300. The proposed system is able to achieve a maximum overall efficiency of ∼63% at 5 cm separation between the TX and RX coils, where the maximum power transfer efficiency (PTE) of the WPT system is ∼88% and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier is 71.6%. The proposed system with reconfigurable stimulation frequency is suitable for exciting different brain areas for long-term health monitoring. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    In wireless power transfer systems, active rectifiers demonstrate improved efficiency and regulation capability. To enable impedance or output regulation, ensure stable operation, and maximize the efficiency, switching actions of the rectifier have to be synchronized with the magnetic field generated from the transmitter coil. This work presents an implementation of a phase- locked-loop synchronization controller using commercial components, including a low-cost microcontroller. A discrete-time small-signal model is used to derive the transfer function of the inherent feedback and design a compensator stabilizing the synchronization loop. Large-signal state-space modeling is used to design a high-efficiency, soft-switching, 6.78MHz power stage. A low-profile, 40W, GaN-based rectifier prototype is designed and built to experimentally verify the ability to synchronize and achieve high efficiency due to soft-switching. 
    more » « less
  5. This paper presents a dual-band RF rectifying circuit for wireless power transmission at 1.17 GHz and 2.4 GHz. A dual-band harmonic-tuned inverse-class F/class-F mode power amplifier using a 10 W GaN device has been utilized to implement the proposed rectifier with an on-board coupler and phase shifter. The matching circuit is precisely designed so that the circuit operates in inverse class F and class F mode in the lower and upper frequency bands using dual-band harmonic tuning, respectively. Measurement results show that the rectifier circuit has 78% and 76% efficiencies at 1.17 GHz and 2.4 GHz frequency bands, respectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this rectifier is the first demonstration of a dual-band harmonic-tuned synchronous rectifier using a GaN HEMT device with an integrated coupler and phase-shifter for a watt-level RF input power. 
    more » « less