The intermittency of renewable energy sources makes the use of energy storage systems (ESSs) indispensable in modern power grids for supply-demand balancing and reliability enhancement. Besides pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations, energy storage deployment worldwide is still quite low. However, the status quo might rapidly change as the energy storage technologies are growing and facilitating market regulations are being ratified. Battery energy storage systems (BESSs), Li-ion batteries in particular, possess attractive properties and are taking over other types of storage technologies. Thus, in this article, we review and evaluate the current state of the art in managing grid-connected Li-ion BESSs and their participation in electricity markets. The review mainly includes battery modeling, the architecture of battery management systems (BMSs), the incorporation of BESSs for electricity market services, global utility-scale battery storage facilities, and challenges in implementing and managing grid-connected BESSs.
Valuing the Capacity Contribution of Renewable Energy Systems with Storage.
The growth of renewable energy technologies creates significant challenges for the stability of the system because of their intermittency. Nonetheless, we can value these technologies with storage systems. We model the supply by a renewable technology, wind, into a storage facility using the leaky bucket mechanism. The bucket is synonymous with storage while the leakage is equivalent to meeting load. Modelica is used to capture: (i) the time-dependence of the state of the bucket based on a physical model of storage; (ii) the stochastic representation of wind energy using wind speed data that is fed into a physical model of a wind technology; and (iii) the load, modeled as a resistor-inductor circuit. The strength of Modelica in using non-causal equations for basic sub-systems that are linked together is harnessed through its libraries. We find that there is a diminishing return to storage. Beyond a certain level of storage, the integration of a reliable baseload power supply is required to diminish the risk due to reduced reliability. The need for storage systems as a hedge against intermittency is dependent on the interplay between the supply volatilities and the stochastic load to guarantee an acceptable level of quality of service and reliability.
- L. Cromarty, R. Shirwaiker
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