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Title: High-performance solar flow battery powered by a perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell
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Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Nature Materials
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1326 to 1331
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    Spicules, the smallest observable jetlike dynamic features ubiquitous in the chromosphere, are supposedly an important potential source for small-scale solar wind transients, with supporting evidence yet needed. We studied the high-resolution Hαimages (0.″10) and magnetograms (0.″29) from the Big Bear Solar Observatory to find that spicules are an ideal candidate for the solar wind magnetic switchbacks detected by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). It is not that spicules are a miniature of coronal jets, but that they have unique properties not found in other solar candidates in explaining solar origin of switchbacks. (1) The spicules under this study originate from filigrees, all in a single magnetic polarity. Since filigrees are known as footpoints of open fields, the spicule guiding field lines can form a unipolar funnel, which is needed to create an SB patch, a group of field lines that switch from one common base polarity to the other polarity. (2) The spicules come in a cluster lined up along a supergranulation boundary, and the simulated waiting times from their spatial intervals exhibit a number distribution continuously decreasing from a few seconds to ∼30 minutes, similar to that of switchbacks. (3) From a time–distance map for spicules, we estimate their occurrence rate as 0.55 spicules Mm−2s−1, which is sufficiently high for detection by PSP. In addition, the dissimilarity of spicules with coronal jets, including the absence of base brightening and low correlation with EUV emission, is briefly discussed.

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    Since the launch on 2018 August 12, the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) has completed its first five orbits around the Sun, having reached down to ~28 solar radii at perihelion 5 on 2020 June 7. More recently, the Solar Orbiter (SolO) made its first close approach to the Sun at 0.52 AU on 2020 June 15, nearly 4 months after the launch. Using a 3D heliospheric MHD model coupled with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) coronal model using the Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport (ADAPT) magnetic maps as input, we simulate the time-varying inner heliosphere, including the trajectories of PSP and SolO, during the current solar minimum period between 2018 and 2020. Above the ADAPT-WSA model outer boundary at 21.5 solar radii, we solve the Reynolds averaged MHD equations with turbulence and pickup ions taken into account and compare the simulation results with the PSP solar wind and magnetic field data, with particular emphasis on the large-scale solar wind structure and magnetic connectivity during each solar encounter. 
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