Multimodal data fusion is one of the current primary neuroimaging research directions to overcome the fundamental limitations of individual modalities by exploiting complementary information from different modalities. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) are especially compelling modalities due to their potentially complementary features reflecting the electro-hemodynamic characteristics of neural responses. However, the current multimodal studies lack a comprehensive systematic approach to properly merge the complementary features from their multimodal data. Identifying a systematic approach to properly fuse EEG-fNIRS data and exploit their complementary potential is crucial in improving performance. This paper proposes a framework for classifying fused EEG-fNIRS data at the feature level, relying on a mutual information-based feature selection approach with respect to the complementarity between features. The goal is to optimize the complementarity, redundancy and relevance between multimodal features with respect to the class labels as belonging to a pathological condition or healthy control. Nine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and nine controls underwent multimodal data recording during a visuo-mental task. Multiple spectral and temporal features were extracted and fed to a feature selection algorithm followed by a classifier, which selected the optimized subset of features through a cross-validation process. The results demonstrated considerably improved hybrid classification performance compared to the individual modalities and compared to conventional classification without feature selection, suggesting a potential efficacy of our proposed framework for wider neuro-clinical applications.more » « less
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- Optical Society of America
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- Biomedical Optics Express
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- Article No. 1635
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- National Science Foundation
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Background: Machine learning is a promising tool for biomarker-based diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Performing multimodal feature selection and studying the interaction between biological and clinical AD can help to improve the performance of the diagnosis models. Objective: This study aims to formulate a feature ranking metric based on the mutual information index to assess the relevance and redundancy of regional biomarkers and improve the AD classification accuracy. Methods: From the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), 722 participants with three modalities, including florbetapir-PET, flortaucipir-PET, and MRI, were studied. The multivariate mutual information metric was utilized to capture the redundancy and complementarity of the predictors and develop a feature ranking approach. This was followed by evaluating the capability of single-modal and multimodal biomarkers in predicting the cognitive stage. Results: Although amyloid-β deposition is an earlier event in the disease trajectory, tau PET with feature selection yielded a higher early-stage classification F1-score (65.4%) compared to amyloid-β PET (63.3%) and MRI (63.2%). The SVC multimodal scenario with feature selection improved the F1-score to 70.0% and 71.8% for the early and late-stage, respectively. When age and risk factors were included, the scores improved by 2 to 4%. The Amyloid-Tau-Neurodegeneration [AT(N)] framework helped to interpret the classification results for different biomarker categories. Conclusion: The results underscore the utility of a novel feature selection approach to reduce the dimensionality of multimodal datasets and enhance model performance. The AT(N) biomarker framework can help to explore the misclassified cases by revealing the relationship between neuropathological biomarkers and cognition.more » « less
Obeid, Iyad Selesnick (Ed.)Electroencephalography (EEG) is a popular clinical monitoring tool used for diagnosing brain-related disorders such as epilepsy . As monitoring EEGs in a critical-care setting is an expensive and tedious task, there is a great interest in developing real-time EEG monitoring tools to improve patient care quality and efficiency . However, clinicians require automatic seizure detection tools that provide decisions with at least 75% sensitivity and less than 1 false alarm (FA) per 24 hours . Some commercial tools recently claim to reach such performance levels, including the Olympic Brainz Monitor  and Persyst 14 . In this abstract, we describe our efforts to transform a high-performance offline seizure detection system  into a low latency real-time or online seizure detection system. An overview of the system is shown in Figure 1. The main difference between an online versus offline system is that an online system should always be causal and has minimum latency which is often defined by domain experts. The offline system, shown in Figure 2, uses two phases of deep learning models with postprocessing . The channel-based long short term memory (LSTM) model (Phase 1 or P1) processes linear frequency cepstral coefficients (LFCC)  features from each EEG channel separately. We use the hypotheses generated by the P1 model and create additional features that carry information about the detected events and their confidence. The P2 model uses these additional features and the LFCC features to learn the temporal and spatial aspects of the EEG signals using a hybrid convolutional neural network (CNN) and LSTM model. Finally, Phase 3 aggregates the results from both P1 and P2 before applying a final postprocessing step. The online system implements Phase 1 by taking advantage of the Linux piping mechanism, multithreading techniques, and multi-core processors. To convert Phase 1 into an online system, we divide the system into five major modules: signal preprocessor, feature extractor, event decoder, postprocessor, and visualizer. The system reads 0.1-second frames from each EEG channel and sends them to the feature extractor and the visualizer. The feature extractor generates LFCC features in real time from the streaming EEG signal. Next, the system computes seizure and background probabilities using a channel-based LSTM model and applies a postprocessor to aggregate the detected events across channels. The system then displays the EEG signal and the decisions simultaneously using a visualization module. The online system uses C++, Python, TensorFlow, and PyQtGraph in its implementation. The online system accepts streamed EEG data sampled at 250 Hz as input. The system begins processing the EEG signal by applying a TCP montage . Depending on the type of the montage, the EEG signal can have either 22 or 20 channels. To enable the online operation, we send 0.1-second (25 samples) length frames from each channel of the streamed EEG signal to the feature extractor and the visualizer. Feature extraction is performed sequentially on each channel. The signal preprocessor writes the sample frames into two streams to facilitate these modules. In the first stream, the feature extractor receives the signals using stdin. In parallel, as a second stream, the visualizer shares a user-defined file with the signal preprocessor. This user-defined file holds raw signal information as a buffer for the visualizer. The signal preprocessor writes into the file while the visualizer reads from it. Reading and writing into the same file poses a challenge. The visualizer can start reading while the signal preprocessor is writing into it. To resolve this issue, we utilize a file locking mechanism in the signal preprocessor and visualizer. Each of the processes temporarily locks the file, performs its operation, releases the lock, and tries to obtain the lock after a waiting period. The file locking mechanism ensures that only one process can access the file by prohibiting other processes from reading or writing while one process is modifying the file . The feature extractor uses circular buffers to save 0.3 seconds or 75 samples from each channel for extracting 0.2-second or 50-sample long center-aligned windows. The module generates 8 absolute LFCC features where the zeroth cepstral coefficient is replaced by a temporal domain energy term. For extracting the rest of the features, three pipelines are used. The differential energy feature is calculated in a 0.9-second absolute feature window with a frame size of 0.1 seconds. The difference between the maximum and minimum temporal energy terms is calculated in this range. Then, the first derivative or the delta features are calculated using another 0.9-second window. Finally, the second derivative or delta-delta features are calculated using a 0.3-second window . The differential energy for the delta-delta features is not included. In total, we extract 26 features from the raw sample windows which add 1.1 seconds of delay to the system. We used the Temple University Hospital Seizure Database (TUSZ) v1.2.1 for developing the online system . The statistics for this dataset are shown in Table 1. A channel-based LSTM model was trained using the features derived from the train set using the online feature extractor module. A window-based normalization technique was applied to those features. In the offline model, we scale features by normalizing using the maximum absolute value of a channel  before applying a sliding window approach. Since the online system has access to a limited amount of data, we normalize based on the observed window. The model uses the feature vectors with a frame size of 1 second and a window size of 7 seconds. We evaluated the model using the offline P1 postprocessor to determine the efficacy of the delayed features and the window-based normalization technique. As shown by the results of experiments 1 and 4 in Table 2, these changes give us a comparable performance to the offline model. The online event decoder module utilizes this trained model for computing probabilities for the seizure and background classes. These posteriors are then postprocessed to remove spurious detections. The online postprocessor receives and saves 8 seconds of class posteriors in a buffer for further processing. It applies multiple heuristic filters (e.g., probability threshold) to make an overall decision by combining events across the channels. These filters evaluate the average confidence, the duration of a seizure, and the channels where the seizures were observed. The postprocessor delivers the label and confidence to the visualizer. The visualizer starts to display the signal as soon as it gets access to the signal file, as shown in Figure 1 using the “Signal File” and “Visualizer” blocks. Once the visualizer receives the label and confidence for the latest epoch from the postprocessor, it overlays the decision and color codes that epoch. The visualizer uses red for seizure with the label SEIZ and green for the background class with the label BCKG. Once the streaming finishes, the system saves three files: a signal file in which the sample frames are saved in the order they were streamed, a time segmented event (TSE) file with the overall decisions and confidences, and a hypotheses (HYP) file that saves the label and confidence for each epoch. The user can plot the signal and decisions using the signal and HYP files with only the visualizer by enabling appropriate options. For comparing the performance of different stages of development, we used the test set of TUSZ v1.2.1 database. It contains 1015 EEG records of varying duration. The any-overlap performance  of the overall system shown in Figure 2 is 40.29% sensitivity with 5.77 FAs per 24 hours. For comparison, the previous state-of-the-art model developed on this database performed at 30.71% sensitivity with 6.77 FAs per 24 hours . The individual performances of the deep learning phases are as follows: Phase 1’s (P1) performance is 39.46% sensitivity and 11.62 FAs per 24 hours, and Phase 2 detects seizures with 41.16% sensitivity and 11.69 FAs per 24 hours. We trained an LSTM model with the delayed features and the window-based normalization technique for developing the online system. Using the offline decoder and postprocessor, the model performed at 36.23% sensitivity with 9.52 FAs per 24 hours. The trained model was then evaluated with the online modules. The current performance of the overall online system is 45.80% sensitivity with 28.14 FAs per 24 hours. Table 2 summarizes the performances of these systems. The performance of the online system deviates from the offline P1 model because the online postprocessor fails to combine the events as the seizure probability fluctuates during an event. The modules in the online system add a total of 11.1 seconds of delay for processing each second of the data, as shown in Figure 3. In practice, we also count the time for loading the model and starting the visualizer block. When we consider these facts, the system consumes 15 seconds to display the first hypothesis. The system detects seizure onsets with an average latency of 15 seconds. Implementing an automatic seizure detection model in real time is not trivial. We used a variety of techniques such as the file locking mechanism, multithreading, circular buffers, real-time event decoding, and signal-decision plotting to realize the system. A video demonstrating the system is available at: https://www.isip.piconepress.com/projects/nsf_pfi_tt/resources/videos/realtime_eeg_analysis/v2.5.1/video_2.5.1.mp4. The final conference submission will include a more detailed analysis of the online performance of each module. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research reported in this publication was most recently supported by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation award number IIP-1827565 and the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program (PA CURE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of any of these organizations. REFERENCES  A. Craik, Y. He, and J. L. Contreras-Vidal, “Deep learning for electroencephalogram (EEG) classification tasks: a review,” J. Neural Eng., vol. 16, no. 3, p. 031001, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab0ab5.  A. C. Bridi, T. Q. Louro, and R. C. L. Da Silva, “Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients,” Rev. Lat. Am. Enfermagem, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 1034, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-1169.3488.2513.  M. Golmohammadi, V. Shah, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Deep Learning Approaches for Automatic Seizure Detection from Scalp Electroencephalograms,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 233–274. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36844-9_8.  “CFM Olympic Brainz Monitor.” [Online]. Available: https://newborncare.natus.com/products-services/newborn-care-products/newborn-brain-injury/cfm-olympic-brainz-monitor. 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null (Ed.)The social and financial costs associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) result in significant burdens on our society. In order to understand the causes of this disease, public-private partnerships such as the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) release data into the scientific community. These data are organized into various modalities (genetic, brain-imaging, cognitive scores, diagnoses, etc.) for analysis. Many statistical learning approaches used in medical image analysis do not explicitly take advantage of this multimodal data structure. In this work we propose a novel objective function and optimization algorithm that is designed to handle multimodal information for the prediction and analysis of AD. Our approach relies on robust matrix-factorization and row-wise sparsity provided by the ℓ2,1- norm in order to integrate multimodal data provided by the ADNI. These techniques are jointly optimized with a classification task to guide the feature selection in our proposed Task Balanced Multimodal Feature Selection method. Our results, when compared against some widely used machine learning algorithms, show improved balanced accuracies, precision, and Matthew's correlation coefficients for identifying cognitive decline. In addition to the improved prediction performance, our method is able to identify brain and genetic biomarkers that are of interest to the clinical research community. Our experiments validate existing brain biomarkers and single nucleotide polymorphisms located on chromosome 11 and detail novel polymorphisms on chromosome 10 that, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have not previously been reported. We anticipate that our method will be of interest to the greater research community and have released our method's code online.11Code is provided at: https://github.com/minds-mines/TBMFSjlmore » « less
In Alzheimer’s Diseases (AD) research, multimodal imaging analysis can unveil complementary information from multiple imaging modalities and further our understanding of the disease. One application is to discover disease subtypes using unsupervised clustering. However, existing clustering methods are often applied to input features directly, and could suffer from the curse of dimensionality with high-dimensional multimodal data. The purpose of our study is to identify multimodal imaging-driven subtypes in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) participants using a multiview learning framework based on Deep Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis (DGCCA), to learn shared latent representation with low dimensions from 3 neuroimaging modalities.
DGCCA applies non-linear transformation to input views using neural networks and is able to learn correlated embeddings with low dimensions that capture more variance than its linear counterpart, generalized CCA (GCCA). We designed experiments to compare DGCCA embeddings with single modality features and GCCA embeddings by generating 2 subtypes from each feature set using unsupervised clustering. In our validation studies, we found that amyloid PET imaging has the most discriminative features compared with structural MRI and FDG PET which DGCCA learns from but not GCCA. DGCCA subtypes show differential measures in 5 cognitive assessments, 6 brain volume measures, and conversion to AD patterns. In addition, DGCCA MCI subtypes confirmed AD genetic markers with strong signals that existing late MCI group did not identify.
Overall, DGCCA is able to learn effective low dimensional embeddings from multimodal data by learning non-linear projections. MCI subtypes generated from DGCCA embeddings are different from existing early and late MCI groups and show most similarity with those identified by amyloid PET features. In our validation studies, DGCCA subtypes show distinct patterns in cognitive measures, brain volumes, and are able to identify AD genetic markers. These findings indicate the promise of the imaging-driven subtypes and their power in revealing disease structures beyond early and late stage MCI.
Multimodal data arise in various applications where information about the same phenomenon is acquired from multiple sensors and across different imaging modalities. Learning from multimodal data is of great interest in machine learning and statistics research as this offers the possibility of capturing complementary information among modalities. Multimodal modeling helps to explain the interdependence between heterogeneous data sources, discovers new insights that may not be available from a single modality, and improves decision‐making. Recently, coupled matrix–tensor factorization has been introduced for multimodal data fusion to jointly estimate latent factors and identify complex interdependence among the latent factors. However, most of the prior work on coupled matrix–tensor factors focuses on unsupervised learning and there is little work on supervised learning using the jointly estimated latent factors. This paper considers the multimodal tensor data classification problem. A coupled support tensor machine (C‐STM) built upon the latent factors jointly estimated from the advanced coupled matrix–tensor factorization is proposed. C‐STM combines individual and shared latent factors with multiple kernels and estimates a maximal‐margin classifier for coupled matrix–tensor data. The classification risk of C‐STM is shown to converge to the optimal Bayes risk, making it a statistically consistent rule. C‐STM is validated through simulation studies as well as a simultaneous analysis on electroencephalography with functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The empirical evidence shows that C‐STM can utilize information from multiple sources and provide a better classification performance than traditional single‐mode classifiers.