skip to main content

Title: Plant Protein O-Arabinosylation
A wide range of proteins with diverse functions in development, defense, and stress responses are O -arabinosylated at hydroxyprolines (Hyps) within distinct amino acid motifs of continuous stretches of Hyps, as found in the structural cell wall extensins, or at non-continuous Hyps as, for example, found in small peptide hormones and a variety of plasma membrane proteins involved in signaling. Plant O -glycosylation relies on hydroxylation of Prolines to Hyps in the protein backbone, mediated by prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) which is followed by O -glycosylation of the Hyp C 4 -OH group by either galactosyltransferases (GalTs) or arabinofuranosyltranferases (Ara f Ts) yielding either Hyp-galactosylation or Hyp-arabinosylation. A subset of the P4H enzymes with putative preference to hydroxylation of continuous prolines and presumably all Ara f T enzymes needed for synthesis of the substituted arabinose chains of one to four arabinose units, have been identified and functionally characterized. Truncated root-hair phenotype is one common denominator of mutants of Hyp formation and Hyp-arabinosylation glycogenes, which act on diverse groups of O -glycosylated proteins, e.g., the small peptide hormones and cell wall extensins. Dissection of different substrate derived effects may not be regularly feasible and thus complicate translation from genotype to phenotype. Recently, lack of proper arabinosylation on arabinosylated proteins has been shown to influence their transport/fate in the secretory pathway, hinting to an additional layer of functionality of O -arabinosylation. Here, we provide an update on the prevalence and types of O -arabinosylated proteins and the enzymatic machinery responsible for their modifications.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Plant Science
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Summary

    HYDROXYPROLINEO‐ARABINOSYLTRANSFERASEs (HPATs) initiate a post‐translational protein modification (Hyp‐Ara) found abundantly on cell wall structural proteins. InArabidopsis thaliana,HPAT1andHPAT3are redundantly required for full pollen fertility. In addition to the lack of Hyp‐Ara inhpat1/3pollen tubes (PTs), we also found broadly disrupted cell wall polymer distributions, particularly the conversion of the tip cell wall to a more shaft‐like state. Mutant PTs were slow growing and prone to rupture and morphological irregularities. In a forward mutagenesis screen for suppressors of thehpat1/3low seed‐set phenotype, we identified a missense mutation inexo70a2, a predicted member of the vesicle‐tethering exocyst complex. The suppressed pollen had increased fertility, fewer morphological defects and partially rescued cell wall organization. A transcriptional null allele ofexo70a2also suppressed thehpat1/3fertility phenotype, as did mutants of core exocyst complex membersec15a, indicating that reduced exocyst function bypassed the PT requirement for Hyp‐Ara. In a wild‐type background,exo70a2reduced male transmission efficiency, lowered pollen germination frequency and slowed PT elongation. EXO70A2 also localized to the PT tip plasma membrane, consistent with a role in exocyst‐mediated secretion. To monitor the trafficking of Hyp‐Ara modified proteins, we generated an HPAT‐targeted fluorescent secretion reporter. Reporter secretion was partially dependent onEXO70A2and was significantly increased inhpat1/3PTs compared with the wild type, but was reduced in the suppressedexo70a2 hpat1/3tubes.

    more » « less
  2. Summary

    The key technical bottleneck for exploiting plant hairy root cultures as a robust bioproduction platform for therapeutic proteins has been low protein productivity, particularly low secreted protein yields. To address this, we engineered novel hydroxyproline (Hyp)‐O‐glycosylated peptides (HypGPs) into tobacco hairy roots to boost the extracellular secretion of fused proteins and to elucidate Hyp‐O‐glycosylation process of plant cell wall Hyp‐rich glycoproteins. HypGPs representing two major types of cell wall glycoproteins were examined: an extensin module consisting of 18 tandem repeats of ‘Ser‐Hyp‐Hyp‐Hyp‐Hyp’ motif or (SP4)18and an arabinogalactan protein module consisting of 32 tandem repeats of ‘Ser‐Hyp’ motif or (SP)32. Each module was expressed in tobacco hairy roots as a fusion to the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Hairy root cultures engineered with a HypGPmodule secreted up to 56‐fold greater levels ofEGFP, compared with anEGFPcontrol lacking any HypGPmodule, supporting the function of HypGPmodules as a molecular carrier in promoting efficient transport of fused proteins into the culture media. The engineered (SP4)18and (SP)32modules underwent Hyp‐O‐glycosylation with arabino‐oligosaccharides and arabinogalactan polysaccharides, respectively, which were essential in facilitating secretion of the fusedEGFPprotein. Distinct non‐Hyp‐O‐glycosylated (SP4)18EGFPand (SP)32EGFPintermediates were consistently accumulated within the root tissues, indicating a rate‐limiting trafficking and/or glycosylation of the engineered HypGPmodules. An updated model depicting the intracellular trafficking, Hyp‐O‐glycosylation and extracellular secretion of extensin‐styled (SP4)18module andAGP‐styled (SP)32module is proposed.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Reconstructing the chemical and structural characteristics of the plant cell wall represents a promising solution to overcoming lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrance to biochemical deconstruction. This study aims to leverage hydroxyproline (Hyp)‐O‐glycosylation, a process unique to plant cell wall glycoproteins, as an innovative technology for de novo design and engineering in planta of Hyp‐O‐glycosylated biopolymers (HypGP) that facilitate plant cell wall reconstruction. HypGP consisting of 18 tandem repeats of “Ser–Hyp–Hyp–Hyp–Hyp” motif or (SP4)18was designed and engineered into tobacco plants as a fusion peptide with either a reporter protein enhanced green fluorescence protein or the catalytic domain of a thermophilic E1 endoglucanase (E1cd) fromAcidothermus cellulolyticus. The engineered (SP4)18module was extensively Hyp‐O‐glycosylated with arabino‐oligosaccharides, which facilitated the deposition of the fused protein/enzyme in the cell wall matrix and improved the accumulation of the protein/enzyme in planta by 1.5–11‐fold. The enzyme activity of the recombinant E1cd was not affected by the fused (SP4)18module, showing an optimal temperature of 80°C and optimal pH between 5 and 8. The plant biomass engineered with the (SP4)18‐tagged protein/enzyme increased the biomass saccharification efficiency by up to 3.5‐fold without having adverse impact on the plant growth.

    more » « less
  4. Methanobactins (MBs) are ribosomally produced and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) that are used by methanotrophs for copper acquisition. The signature post-translational modification of MBs is the formation of two heterocyclic groups, either an oxazolone, pyrazinedione or imidazolone group, with an associated thioamide from an X -Cys dipeptide. The precursor peptide (MbnA) for MB formation is found in a gene cluster of MB-associated genes. The exact biosynthetic pathway of MB formation is not yet fully understood, and there are still uncharacterized proteins in some MB gene clusters, particularly those that produce pyrazinedione or imidazolone rings. One such protein is MbnF, which is proposed to be a flavin monooxygenase (FMO) based on homology. To help to elucidate its possible function, MbnF from Methylocystis sp. strain SB2 was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and its X-ray crystal structure was resolved to 2.6 Å resolution. Based on its structural features, MbnF appears to be a type A FMO, most of which catalyze hydroxylation reactions. Preliminary functional characterization shows that MbnF preferentially oxidizes NADPH over NADH, supporting NAD(P)H-mediated flavin reduction, which is the initial step in the reaction cycle of several type A FMO enzymes. It is also shown that MbnF binds the precursor peptide for MB, with subsequent loss of the leader peptide sequence as well as the last three C-terminal amino acids, suggesting that MbnF might be needed for this process to occur. Finally, molecular-dynamics simulations revealed a channel in MbnF that is capable of accommodating the core MbnA fragment minus the three C-terminal amino acids. 
    more » « less
  5. Asparagine-linked glycosylation, also known as N-linked glycosylation is an essential and highly conserved post-translational protein modification that occurs in all three domains of life. This modification is essential for specific molecular recognition, protein folding, sorting in the endoplasmic reticulum, cell–cell communication, and stability. Defects in N-linked glycosylation results in a class of inherited diseases known as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). N-linked glycosylation occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen by a membrane associated enzyme complex called the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). In the central step of this reaction, an oligosaccharide group is transferred from a lipid-linked dolichol pyrophosphate donor to the acceptor substrate, the side chain of a specific asparagine residue of a newly synthesized protein. The prokaryotic OST enzyme consists of a single polypeptide chain, also known as single subunit OST or ssOST. In contrast, the eukaryotic OST is a complex of multiple non-identical subunits. In this review, we will discuss the biochemical and structural characterization of the prokaryotic, yeast, and mammalian OST enzymes. This review explains the most recent high-resolution structures of OST determined thus far and the mechanistic implication of N-linked glycosylation throughout all domains of life. It has been shown that the ssOST enzyme, AglB protein of the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and the PglB protein of the bacterium Campylobactor lari are structurally and functionally similar to the catalytic Stt3 subunit of the eukaryotic OST enzyme complex. Yeast OST enzyme complex contains a single Stt3 subunit, whereas the human OST complex is formed with either STT3A or STT3B, two paralogues of Stt3. Both human OST complexes, OST-A (with STT3A) and OST-B (containing STT3B), are involved in the N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the ER. The cryo-EM structures of both human OST-A and OST-B complexes were reported recently. An acceptor peptide and a donor substrate (dolichylphosphate) were observed to be bound to the OST-B complex whereas only dolichylphosphate was bound to the OST-A complex suggesting disparate affinities of two OST complexes for the acceptor substrates. However, we still lack an understanding of the independent role of each eukaryotic OST subunit in N-linked glycosylation or in the stabilization of the enzyme complex. Discerning the role of each subunit through structure and function studies will potentially reveal the mechanistic details of N-linked glycosylation in higher organisms. Thus, getting an insight into the requirement of multiple non-identical subunits in the N-linked glycosylation process in eukaryotes poses an important future goal. 
    more » « less