The adoption of metal additive manufacturing (AM) has tremendously increased over the years; however, it is still challenging to explain the fundamental physical phenomena occurring during these stochastic processes. To tackle this problem, we have constructed a custom metal AM system to simulate powder fed directed energy deposition. This instrument is integrated at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source to conduct operando studies of the metal AM process. These operando experiments provide valuable data that can be used for various applications, such as (a) to study the response of the material to non-equilibrium solidification and intrinsic heat treatment and (b) to characterize changes in lattice plane spacing, which helps us calculate the thermo-mechanical history and resulting microstructural features. Such high-fidelity data are made possible by state-of-the-art direct-detection x-ray area detectors, which aid in the observation of solidification pathways of different metallic alloys. Furthermore, we discuss the various possibilities of analyzing the synchrotron dataset with examples across different measurement modes.
In situ / operando synchrotron x-ray studies of metal additive manufacturing
Additive manufacturing (AM) comprises a group of transformative technologies that are likely to revolutionize manufacturing. In particular, laser-based metal AM techniques can not only fabricate parts with extreme complexity, but also provide innovative means for designing and processing new metallic systems. However, there are still several technical barriers that constrain metal AM. Overcoming these barriers requires a better understanding of the physics underlying the complex and dynamic laser–metal interaction at the heart of many AM processes. This article briefly describes the state of the art of in situ / operando synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction for studying metal AM, mostly the laser powder-bed fusion process. It highlights the immediate impact of operando synchrotron studies on the advancement of AM technologies, and presents future research challenges and opportunities.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- MRS Bulletin
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 927 to 933
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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