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- Cell systems
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1 - 12
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Data-driven discovery of cancer driver genes, including tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and oncogenes (OGs), is imperative for cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Although epigenetic alterations are important for tumor initiation and progression, most known driver genes were identified based on genetic alterations alone. Here, we developed an algorithm, DORGE (Discovery of Oncogenes and tumor suppressoR genes using Genetic and Epigenetic features), to identify TSGs and OGs by integrating comprehensive genetic and epigenetic data. DORGE identified histone modifications as strong predictors for TSGs, and it found missense mutations, super enhancers, and methylation differences as strong predictors for OGs. We extensively validated DORGE-predicted cancer driver genes using independent functional genomics data. We also found that DORGE-predicted dual-functional genes (both TSGs and OGs) are enriched at hubs in protein-protein interaction and drug-gene networks. Overall, our study has deepened the understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in tumorigenesis and revealed previously undetected cancer driver genes.
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Directional association measured by functional dependency can answer important questions on relationships between variables, for example, in discovery of molecular interactions in biological systems. However, when one has no prior information about the functional form of a directional association, there is not a widely established statistical procedure to detect such an association. To address this issue, here we introduce an exact functional test for directional association by examining the strength of functional dependency. It is effective in promoting functional patterns by reducing statistical power on dependent non-functional patterns. We designed an algorithm to carry out the test using a fast branch-and-bound strategy, which achieved a substantial speedup over brute-force enumeration. On data from an epidemiological study of liver cancer, the test identified the hepatitis status of a subject as the most influential risk factor among others for the cancer phenotype. On human lung cancer transcriptome data, the test selected 1068 transcription start sites of putative noncoding RNAs directionally associated with the presence or absence of lung cancer, stronger than 95 percent transcription start sites of 694 curated cancer genes. These predictions include non-monotonic interaction patterns, to which other routine tests were insensitive. Complementing symmetric (non-directional) association methods such as Fisher’smore »
Cancer is a complex disease associated with abnormal DNA mutations. Not all tumors are cancerous and not all cancers are the same. Correct cancer type diagnosis can indicate the most effective drug therapy and increase survival rate. At the molecular level, it has been shown that cancer type classification can be carried out from the analysis of somatic point mutation. However, the high dimensionality and sparsity of genomic mutation data, coupled with its small sample size has been a hindrance in accurate classification of cancer. We address these problems by introducing a novel classification method called mClass that accounts for the sparsity of the data. mClass is a feature selection method that ranks genes based on their similarity across samples and employs their normalized mutual information to determine the set of genes that provide optimal classification accuracy. Experimental results on TCGA datasets show that mClass significantly improves testing accuracy compared to DeepGene, which is the state-of-the-art in cancer-type classification based on somatic mutation data. In addition, when compared with other cancer gene prediction tools, the set of genes selected by mClass contains the highest number of genes in top 100 genes listed in the Cancer Gene Census. mClass is availablemore »
Despite widespread interest in next-generation sequencing (NGS), the adoption of personalized clinical genomics and mutation profiling of cancer specimens is lagging, in part because of technical limitations. Tumors are genetically heterogeneous and often contain normal/stromal cells, features that lead to low-abundance somatic mutations that generate ambiguous results or reside below NGS detection limits, thus hindering the clinical sensitivity/specificity standards of mutation calling. We applied COLD-PCR (coamplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR), a PCR methodology that selectively enriches variants, to improve the detection of unknown mutations before NGS-based amplicon resequencing.
We used both COLD-PCR and conventional PCR (for comparison) to amplify serially diluted mutation-containing cell-line DNA diluted into wild-type DNA, as well as DNA from lung adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer samples. After amplification of TP53 (tumor protein p53), KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), IDH1 [isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP+), soluble], and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) gene regions, PCR products were pooled for library preparation, bar-coded, and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000.
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