skip to main content


Title: Enhancing cycling stability of tungsten oxide supercapacitor electrodes via a boron cluster-based molecular cross-linking approach
We report our discovery of utilizing perhydroxylated dodecaborate clusters ([B 12 (OH) 12 ] 2− ) as a molecular cross-linker to generate a hybrid tungsten oxide material. The reaction of [N n Bu 4 ] 2 [B 12 (OH) 12 ] with WCl 6 , followed by subsequent annealing of the product at 500 °C in air successfully produces a tungsten oxide material cross-linked with B 12 -based clusters. The comprehensive structural study of the produced hybrid material confirms a cross-linked network of intact boron-rich clusters and tungsten oxides. We further demonstrate how these robust B 12 -based clusters in the resulting hybrid tungsten oxide material can effectively preserve the specific capacitance up to 4000 cycles and reduce the charge transfer resistance as well as the response time compared to that of pristine tungsten oxide. Ultimately, this work highlights a promising capability of boron-rich clusters in hybrid metal oxides to obtain fast and stable supercapacitors with high capacitance.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1846849
NSF-PAR ID:
10220056
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Volume:
8
Issue:
35
ISSN:
2050-7488
Page Range / eLocation ID:
18015 to 18023
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Because of their interesting structures and bonding and potentials as motifs for new nanomaterials, size-selected boron clusters have received tremendous interest in recent years. In particular, boron cluster anions (B n − ) have allowed systematic joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies, revealing predominantly two-dimensional structures. The discovery of the planar B 36 cluster with a central hexagonal vacancy provided the first experimental evidence of the viability of 2D borons, giving rise to the concept of borophene. The finding of the B 40 cage cluster unveiled the existence of fullerene-like boron clusters (borospherenes). Metal-doping can significantly extend the structural and bonding repertoire of boron clusters. Main-group metals interact with boron through s/p orbitals, resulting in either half-sandwich-type structures or substitutional structures. Transition metals are more versatile in bonding with boron, forming a variety of structures including half-sandwich structures, metal-centered boron rings, and metal-centered boron drums. Transition metal atoms have also been found to be able to be doped into the plane of 2D boron clusters, suggesting the possibility of metalloborophenes. Early studies of di-metal-doped boron clusters focused on gold, revealing ladder-like boron structures with terminal gold atoms. Recent observations of highly symmetric Ta 2 B 6 − and Ln 2 B n − ( n = 7–9) clusters have established a family of inverse sandwich structures with monocyclic boron rings stabilized by two metal atoms. The study of size-selected boron and doped-boron clusters is a burgeoning field of research. Further investigations will continue to reveal more interesting structures and novel chemical bonding, paving the foundation for new boron-based chemical compounds and nanomaterials. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Using Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis of in situ total scattering data, we investigate the formation of tungsten and niobium oxides in a simple solvothermal synthesis. We use Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) analysis of the time resolved PDFs to both map the structural changes taking place throughout the synthesis and identify structural models for precursor and product through PCC‐based structure mining. Our analysis first shows that ultra‐small tungsten and niobium oxide nanoparticles form instantaneously upon heating, with sizes between 1.5 and 2 nm. We show that the main structural motifs in the nanoparticles can be described with structures containing pentagonal columns, which is characteristic for many bulk tungsten and niobium oxides. We furthermore elucidate the structure of the precursor complex as clusters of octahedra with O‐ and Cl‐ligands. The PCC based methodology automates the structure characterization and proves useful for analysis of large datasets of for example, time resolved X‐ray scattering studies. The PCC is implemented in ‘PDF in the cloud’, a web platform for PDF analysis.

     
    more » « less
  3. Here, we expand on the synthesis and characterization of chloride-functionalized polyoxovanadate-alkoxide (POV-alkoxide) clusters, to include the halogenation of mixed-valent vanadium oxide assemblies. These findings build on our previously disclosed results describing the preparation of a mono-anionic chloride-functionalized cluster, [V 6 O 6 Cl(OC 2 H 5 ) 12 ] 1− , by chlorination of [V 6 O 7 (OC 2 H 5 ) 12 ] 2− with AlCl 3 , aimed at understanding the electronic consequences of the introduction of halide-defects in bulk metal oxides ( e.g. VO 2 ). While chlorination of the mixed-valent POV-ethoxide clusters was not possible using AlCl 3 , we have found that the chloride-substituted oxidized derivatives of the Lindqvist vanadium-oxide clusters can be formed using TiCl 3 (thf) 3 with [V 6 O 7 (OC 2 H 5 ) 12 ] n ( n = 1−, 0) or WCl 6 with [V 6 O 7 (OC 2 H 5 ) 12 ] 0 . Characterization of the chloride-containing products, [V 6 O 6 Cl(OC 2 H 5 ) 12 ] n ( n = 0, 1+), was accomplished via 1 H NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis. Electronic analysis of the redox series of Cl-doped POV-alkoxide clusters via infrared and electronic absorption spectroscopies revealed all redox events are localized to the vanadyl portion of the cluster, with the site differentiated V III –Cl moiety retaining its reduced oxidation state across a 1.9 V window. These results present new synthetic routes for accessing chloride-doped POV-alkoxide clusters from mixed-valent vanadium oxide precursors. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Reducible metal oxides (RMOs) are widely used materials in heterogeneous catalysis due to their ability to facilitate the conversion of energy-poor substrates to energy-rich chemical fuels and feedstocks. Theoretical investigations have modeled the role of RMOs in catalysis and found they traditionally follow a mechanism in which the generation of oxygen-atom vacancies is crucial for the high activity of these solid supports. However, limited spectroscopic techniques for in situ analysis renders the identification of the reactivity of individual oxygen-atom vacancies on RMOs challenging. These obstacles can be circumvented through the use of homogeneous complexes as molecular models for metal oxides, such as polyoxometalates. Summarized herein, a sub-class of polyoxometalates, polyoxovanadate–alkoxide clusters, ([V 6 O 7 (OR) 12 ] n ; R = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 ; n = 2−, 1−, 0), are explored as homogeneous molecular models for bulk vanadium oxide. A series of synthetic strategies have been employed to access oxygen-deficient vanadium oxide assemblies, including addition of V(Mes) 3 (thf), tertiary phosphanes, and organic acids to plenary Lindqvist motifs. We further detail investigations surrounding the ability of these oxygen-deficient sites to mediate reductive transformations such as O 2 and NO x 1− ( x = 2, 3) activation. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Boron‐containing materials have recently been identified as highly selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of alkanes to olefins. It has previously been demonstrated by several spectroscopic characterization techniques that the surface of these boron‐containing ODH catalysts oxidize and hydrolyze under reaction conditions, forming an amorphous B2(OH)xO(3−x/2)(x=0–6) layer. Yet, the precise nature of the active site(s) remains elusive. In this Communication, we provide a detailed characterization of zeolite MCM‐22 isomorphously substituted with boron (B‐MWW). Using11B solid‐state NMR spectroscopy, we show that the majority of boron species in B‐MWW exist as isolated BO3units, fully incorporated into the zeolite framework. However, this material shows no catalytic activity for ODH of propane to propene. The catalytic inactivity of B‐MWW for ODH of propane falsifies the hypothesis that site‐isolated BO3units are the active site in boron‐based catalysts. This observation is at odds with other traditionally studied catalysts like vanadium‐based catalysts and provides an important piece of the mechanistic puzzle.

     
    more » « less