- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Abstract ANK3is a leading bipolar disorder (BD) candidate gene in humans and provides a unique opportunity for studying epilepsy-BD comorbidity. Previous studies showed that deletion of Ank3-1b, a BD-associated variant of Ank3in mice leads to increased firing threshold and diminished action potential dynamic range of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and absence epilepsy, thus providing a biological mechanism linking epilepsy and BD. To explore the behavioral overlap of these disorders, we characterized behavioral patterns of Ank3-1bKO mice during overnight home-cage activity and examined network activity during these behaviors using paired video and EEG recordings. Since PV interneurons contribute to the generation of high-frequency gamma oscillations, we anticipated changes in the power of neocortical EEG signals in the gamma frequency range (> 25 Hz) during behavioral states related to human BD symptoms, including abnormal sleep, hyperactivity, and repetitive behaviors. Ank3-1bKO mice exhibited an overall increase in slow gamma (~25-45 Hz) power compared to controls, and slow gamma power correlated with seizure phenotype severity across behaviors. During sleep, increased slow gamma power correlated with decreased time spent in the rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep. Seizures were more common during REM sleep compared to non-REM (NREM) sleep. We also found that Ank3-1bKO mice were hyperactive and exhibited a repetitive behavior phenotype that co-occurred with increased slow gamma power. Our results identify a novel EEG biomarker associating Ank3genetic variation with BD and epilepsy and suggest modulation of gamma oscillations as a potential therapeutic target.
Syncytial isopotentiality, resulting from a strong electrical coupling, emerges as a physiological mechanism that coordinates individual astrocytes to function as a highly efficient system in brain homeostasis. However, whether syncytial isopotentiality occurs selectively to certain brain regions or is universal to astrocytic networks remains unknown. Here, we have explored the correlation of syncytial isopotentiality with different astrocyte subtypes in various brain regions. Using a nonphysiological K+‐free/Na+electrode solution to depolarize a recorded astrocyte in situ, the existence of syncytial isopotentiality can be revealed: the recorded astrocyte's membrane potential remains at a quasi‐physiological level due to strong electrical coupling with neighboring astrocytes. Syncytial isopotentiality appears in Layer I of the motor, sensory, and visual cortical regions, where astrocytes are organized with comparable cell densities, interastrocytic distances, and the quantity of directly coupled neighbors. Second, though astrocytes vary in their cytoarchitecture in association with neuronal circuits from Layers I–VI, the established syncytial isopotentiality remains comparable among different layers in the visual cortex. Third, neurons and astrocytes are uniquely organized as barrels in Layer IV somatosensory cortex; interestingly, astrocytes both inside and outside of the barrels do electrically communicate with each other and also share syncytial isopotentiality. Fourth, syncytial isopotentiality appears in radial‐shaped Bergmann glia and velate astrocytes in the cerebellar cortex. Fifth, although fibrous astrocytes in white matter exhibit a distinct morphology, their network syncytial isopotentiality is comparable with protoplasmic astrocytes. Altogether, syncytial isopotentiality appears as a system‐wide electrical feature of astrocytic networks in the brain.
null (Ed.)Abstract Study Objectives We determine if young people with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) have distinct nocturnal sleep stability phenotypes compared to subjectively sleepy controls. Methods Participants were 5- to 21-year old and drug-naïve or drug free: NT1 (n = 46), NT2 (n = 12), IH (n = 18), and subjectively sleepy controls (n = 48). We compared the following sleep stability measures from polysomnogram recording between each hypersomnolence disorder to subjectively sleepy controls: number of wake and sleep stage bouts, Kaplan–Meier survival curves for wake and sleep stages, and median bout durations. Results Compared to the subjectively sleepy control group, NT1 participants had more bouts of wake and all sleep stages (p ≤ .005) except stage N3. NT1 participants had worse survival of nocturnal wake, stage N2, and rapid eye movement (REM) bouts (p < .005). In the first 8 hours of sleep, NT1 participants had longer stage N1 bouts but shorter REM (all ps < .004). IH participants had a similar number of bouts but better survival of stage N2 bouts (p = .001), and shorter stage N3 bouts in the first 8 hours of sleep (p = .003). In contrast, NT2 participants showed better stage N1 bout survival (p = .006) and longer stage N1 bouts (p = .02). Conclusions NT1, NT2, and IH have unique sleep physiology compared to subjectively sleepy controls, with only NT1 demonstrating clear nocturnal wake and sleep instability. Overall, sleep stability measures may aid in diagnoses and management of these central nervous system disorders of hypersomnolence.more » « less
The brain processes memories as we sleep, generating rhythms of electrical activity called ‘sleep spindles’. Sleep spindles were long thought to be a state where the entire brain was fully synchronized by this rhythm. This was based on EEG recordings, short for electroencephalogram, a technique that uses electrodes on the scalp to measure electrical activity in the outermost layer of the brain, the cortex. But more recent intracranial recordings of people undergoing brain surgery have challenged this idea and suggested that sleep spindles may not be a state of global brain synchronization, but rather localised to specific areas. Mofrad et al. sought to clarify the extent to which spindles co-occur at multiple sites in the brain, which could shed light on how networks of neurons coordinate memory storage during sleep. To analyse highly variable brain wave recordings, Mofrad et al. adapted deep learning algorithms initially developed for detecting earthquakes and gravitational waves. The resulting algorithm, designed to more sensitively detect spindles amongst other brain activity, was then applied to a range of sleep recordings from humans and macaque monkeys. The analyses revealed that widespread and complex patterns of spindle rhythms, spanning multiple areas in the cortex of the brain, actually appear much more frequently than previously thought. This finding was consistent across all the recordings analysed, even recordings under the skull, which provide the clearest window into brain circuits. Further analyses found that these multi-area spindles occurred more often in sleep after people had completed tasks that required holding many visual scenes in memory, as opposed to control conditions with fewer visual scenes. In summary, Mofrad et al. show that neuroscientists had previously not appreciated the complex and dynamic patterns in this sleep rhythm. These patterns in sleep spindles may be able to adapt based on the demands needed for memory storage, and this will be the subject of future work. Moreover, the findings support the idea that sleep spindles help coordinate the consolidation of memories in brain circuits that stretch across the cortex. Understanding this mechanism may provide insights into how memory falters in aging and sleep-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Lastly, the algorithm developed by Mofrad et al. stands to be a useful tool for analysing other rhythmic waveforms in noisy recordings.more » « less
About one in 3,500 people have a genetic disorder called neurofibromatosis type 1, often shortened to NF1, making it one of the most common inherited diseases. People with NF1 may have benign and cancerous tumors throughout the body, learning disabilities, developmental delays, curvature of the spine and bone abnormalities. Children with NF1 often experience difficulties with attention, hyperactivity, speech and language delays and impulsivity. They may also have autism spectrum disorder, or display symptoms associated with this condition. Studies in mice with a genetic mutation that mimics NF1 suggest that abnormal development in cells in the middle of the brain may cause the cognitive symptoms. These midbrain neurons produce a chemical called dopamine and send it throughout the brain. Dopamine is essential for concentration and it is involved in how the brain processes pleasurable experiences. Now, Robinson et al. show that, at rest, the NF1 model mice release dopamine less often than typical mice. This happens because, when there are no stimuli to respond to, neighboring cells slow down the activity of dopamine-producing neurons in NF1 model mice. In the experiments, both NF1 model mice and typical mice were taught to associate environmental cues with rewards or punishments. Robinson et al. then measured the release of dopamine in the mice using a sensor called dLight1, which produces different intensities of fluorescent light depending on the amount of dopamine present. This revealed that the NF1 model mice produced more dopamine in response to visual cues and had enhanced behavioral responses to these stimuli. For example, when a looming disc that mimics predators approached them from above, the NF1 model mice tried to hide in an exaggerated way compared to the typical mice. Previously, it had been shown that this type of behavior is due to the activity of the dopamine-producing neurons' neighboring cells, which Robinson et al. found is greater in NF1 model mice. Next, Robinson et al. stopped neighboring cells from interfering with the dopamine-producing neurons in NF1 model mice. This restored dopamine release to normal levels at rest, and stopped the mice from overreacting to the looming disc. The experiments help explain how the NF1 model mice process visual information. Further study of the role dopamine plays in cognitive symptoms in people with NF1 may help scientists develop treatments for the condition.more » « less