Abstract. High-resolution remote sensing imagery has been increasingly used for flood applications. Different methods have been proposed for flood extent mapping from creating water index to image classification from high-resolution data. Among these methods, deep learning methods have shown promising results for flood extent extraction; however, these two-dimensional (2D) image classification methods cannot directly provide water level measurements. This paper presents an integrated approach to extract the flood extent in three-dimensional (3D) from UAV data by integrating 2D deep learning-based flood map and 3D cloud point extracted from a Structure from Motion (SFM) method. We fine-tuned a pretrained Visual Geometry Group 16 (VGG-16) based fully convolutional model to create a 2D inundation map. The 2D classified map was overlaid on the SfM-based 3D point cloud to create a 3D flood map. The floodwater depth was estimated by subtracting a pre-flood Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the SfM-based DEM. The results show that the proposed method is efficient in creating a 3D flood extent map to support emergency response and recovery activates during a flood event.
Three-Dimensional Inundation Mapping Using UAV Image Segmentation and Digital Surface Model
Flood occurrence is increasing due to the expansion of urbanization and extreme weather like hurricanes; hence, research on methods of inundation monitoring and mapping has increased to reduce the severe impacts of flood disasters. This research studies and compares two methods for inundation depth estimation using UAV images and topographic data. The methods consist of three main stages: (1) extracting flooded areas and create 2D inundation polygons using deep learning; (2) reconstructing 3D water surface using the polygons and topographic data; and (3) deriving a water depth map using the 3D reconstructed water surface and a pre-flood DEM. The two methods are different at reconstructing the 3D water surface (stage 2). The first method uses structure from motion (SfM) for creating a point cloud of the area from overlapping UAV images, and the water polygons resulted from stage 1 is applied for water point cloud classification. While the second method reconstructs the water surface by intersecting the water polygons and a pre-flood DEM created using the pre-flood LiDAR data. We evaluate the proposed methods for inundation depth mapping over the Town of Princeville during a flooding event during Hurricane Matthew. The methods are compared and validated using the USGS gauge more »
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