- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Chemical Science
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 13079 to 13084
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Design and implementation of the first (asymmetric) Fe-catalyzed intra- and intermolecular difunctionalization of vinyl cyclopropanes (VCPs) with alkyl halides and aryl Grignard reagents has been realized via a mechanistically driven approach. Mechanistic studies support the diffusion of alkyl radical intermediates out of the solvent cage to participate in an intra- or intermolecular radical cascade with a range of VCPs followed by re-entering the Fe radical cross-coupling cycle to undergo (stereo)selective C(sp 2 )–C(sp 3 ) bond formation. This work provides a proof-of-concept of the use of vinyl cyclopropanes as synthetically useful 1,5-synthons in Fe-catalyzed conjunctive cross-couplings with alkyl halides and aryl/vinyl Grignard reagents. Overall, we provide new design principles for Fe-mediated radical processes and underscore the potential of using combined computations and experiments to accelerate the development of challenging transformations.
Selective functionalization of ubiquitous unactivated C–H bonds is a continuous quest for synthetic organic chemists. In addition to transition metal catalysis, which typically operates under a two-electron manifold, a recent renaissance in the radical approach relying on the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) process has led to tremendous growth in the area. Despite several challenges, protocols proceeding via HAT are highly sought after as they allow for relatively easy activation of inert C–H bonds under mild conditions leading to a broader scope and higher functional group tolerance and sometimes complementary reactivity over methods relying on traditional transition metal catalysis. A number of methods operating via heteroatom-based HAT have been extensively reported over the past few years, while methods employing more challenging carbon analogues have been less explored. Recent developments of mild methodologies for generation of various carbon-centered radical species enabled their utilization in the HAT process, which, in turn, led to the development of remote C(sp 3 )–H functionalization reactions of alcohols, amines, amides and related compounds. This review covers mostly recent advances in C–H functionalization reactions involving the HAT step to carbon-centered radicals.
A general strategy for C(sp3)–H functionalization with nucleophiles using methyl radical as a hydrogen atom abstractor
Photoredox catalysis has provided many approaches to C(sp3)–H functionalization that enable selective oxidation and C(sp3)–C bond formation via the intermediacy of a carbon-centered radical. While highly enabling, functionalization of the carbon-centered radical is largely mediated by electrophilic reagents. Notably, nucleophilic reagents represent an abundant and practical reagent class, motivating the interest in developing a general C(sp3)–H functionalization strategy with nucleophiles. Here we describe a strategy that transforms C(sp3)–H bonds into carbocations via sequential hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and oxidative radical-polar crossover. The resulting carbocation is functionalized by a variety of nucleophiles—including halides, water, alcohols, thiols, an electron-rich arene, and an azide—to effect diverse bond formations. Mechanistic studies indicate that HAT is mediated by methyl radical—a previously unexplored HAT agent with differing polarity to many of those used in photoredox catalysis—enabling new site-selectivity for late-stage C(sp3)–H functionalization.
A Case Study of the Glycoside Hydrolase Enzyme Mechanism Using an Automated QM-Cluster Model Building ToolkitGlycoside hydrolase enzymes are important for hydrolyzing the β-1,4 glycosidic bond in polysaccharides for deconstruction of carbohydrates. The two-step retaining reaction mechanism of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 7 (GH7) was explored with different sized QM-cluster models built by the Residue Interaction Network ResidUe Selector (RINRUS) software using both the wild-type protein and its E217Q mutant. The first step is the glycosylation, in which the acidic residue 217 donates a proton to the glycosidic oxygen leading to bond cleavage. In the subsequent deglycosylation step, one water molecule migrates into the active site and attacks the anomeric carbon. Residue interaction-based QM-cluster models lead to reliable structural and energetic results for proposed glycoside hydrolase mechanisms. The free energies of activation for glycosylation in the largest QM-cluster models were predicted to be 19.5 and 31.4 kcal mol −1 for the wild-type protein and its E217Q mutant, which agree with experimental trends that mutation of the acidic residue Glu217 to Gln will slow down the reaction; and are higher in free energy than the deglycosylation transition states (13.8 and 25.5 kcal mol −1 for the wild-type protein and its mutant, respectively). For the mutated protein, glycosylation led to a low-energy product. This thermodynamic sink may correspond to the intermediate statemore »
Described herein is the first example of glycosidation of thioglycosides in the presence of palladium( ii ) bromide. While the activation with PdBr 2 alone was proven feasible, higher yields and cleaner reactions were achieved when these glycosylations were performed in the presence of propargyl bromide as an additive. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that propargyl bromide assists the reaction by creating an ionizing complex, which accelerates the leaving group departure. A variety of thioglycoside donors in reactions with different glycosyl acceptors were investigated to determine the initial scope of this new reaction. Selective and chemoselective activation of thioglycosides over other leaving groups has also been explored.