Design of a Modular, Partially Disposable Robot for Minimally Invasive Surgery

Most robots for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) are large, bulky devices which mimic the paradigm of manual MIS by manipulating long, rigid instruments from outside the body [1]. Some of these incorporate “wristed” instruments to place some local dexterity at or near the tool tip [2]. In contrast, a small number of MIS robot designs place all of the degrees of freedom inside the patient’s body in order to increase the local dexterity [3].

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10230174
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Frontiers in Biomedical Devices
The pre-ALPACA (Alaskan Layered Pollution And Chemical Analysis) 2019 winter campaign took place in Fairbanks, Alaska, in November–December 2019. One objective of the campaign was to study the life-cycle of surface-based temperature inversions and the associated surface energy budget changes. Several instruments, including a 4-component radiometer and sonic anemometer were deployed in the open, snow-covered University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Campus Agricultural Field. A local flow from a connecting valley occurs at this site. This flow is characterized by locally elevated wind speeds (greater than 3 m s$$^{-1}$$${}^{-1}$) under clear-sky conditions and a north-westerly direction. It is notably different to the wind observed at the airport more than 3.5 km to the south-west. The surface energy budget at the UAF Field site exhibits two preferential modes. In the first mode, turbulent sensible heat and net longwave fluxes are close to 0 W m$$^{-2}$$${}^{-2}$, linked to the presence of clouds and generally low winds. In the second, the net longwave flux is around − 50 W m$$^{-2}$$${}^{-2}$and the turbulent sensible heat flux is around 15 W m$$^{-2}$$${}^{-2}$, linked to clear skies and elevated wind speeds. The development of surface-based temperature inversions at the field is hindered compared to the airport because the local flow sustains vertical mixing. In this secondmore »