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Title: Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Growth of Unidirectional WS2 Monolayers on Sapphire
Realization of wafer-scale single-crystal films of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS2 requires epitaxial growth and coalescence of oriented domains to form a continuous monolayer. The domains must be oriented in the same crystallographic direction on the substrate to inhibit the formation of inversion domain boundaries (IDBs), which are a common feature of layered chalcogenides. Here we demonstrate fully coalesced unidirectional WS2 monolayers on 2 in. diameter c-plane sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using a multistep growth process to achieve epitaxial WS2 monolayers with low in-plane rotational twist (0.09°). Transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals that the WS2 monolayers are largely free of IDBs but instead have translational boundaries that arise when WS2 domains with slightly offset lattices merge together. By regulating the monolayer growth rate, the density of translational boundaries and bilayer coverage were significantly reduced. The unidirectional orientation of domains is attributed to the presence of steps on the sapphire surface coupled with growth conditions that promote surface diffusion, lateral domain growth, and coalescence while preserving the aligned domain structure. The transferred WS2 monolayers show neutral and charged exciton emission at 80 K with negligible defect-related luminescence. Back-gated WS2 field effect transistors exhibited an ION/OFF of ∼107 and mobility of 16 cm2/(V s). The results demonstrate the potential of achieving wafer-scale TMD monolayers free of inversion domains with properties approaching those of exfoliated flakes.  more » « less
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ACS nano
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National Science Foundation
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