- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 2680 to 2694
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Elaborate animal communication displays are often accompanied by morphological and physiological innovations. In rodents, acoustic signals used in reproductive contexts are produced by two distinct mechanisms, but the underlying anatomy that facilitates such divergence is poorly understood. ‘Audible’ vocalizations with spectral properties between 500 Hz and 16 kHz are thought to be produced by flow-induced vocal fold vibrations, whereas ‘ultrasonic’ vocalizations with fundamental frequencies above 19 kHz are produced by an aerodynamic whistle mechanism. Baiomyine mice (genus Baiomys and Scotinomys) produce complex frequency modulated songs that span these traditional distinctions and represent important models to understand the evolution of signal elaboration. We combined acoustic analyses of spontaneously vocalizing northern pygmy mice (B. taylori) mice in air and light gas atmosphere with morphometric analyses of their vocal apparatus to infer the mechanism of vocal production. Increased fundamental frequencies in heliox indicated that pygmy mouse songs are produced by an aerodynamic whistle mechanism supported by the presence of a ventral pouch and alar cartilage. Comparative analyses of the larynx and ventral pouch size among four additional ultrasonic whistle-producing rodents indicate that the unusually low ‘ultrasonic’ frequencies (relative to body size) of pygmy mice songs are associated with an enlarged ventral pouch. Additionally, mice produced shorter syllables while maintaining intersyllable interval duration, thereby increasing syllable repetition rates. We conclude that while laryngeal anatomy sets the foundation for vocal frequency range, variation and adjustment of central vocal motor control programs fine tunes spectral and temporal characters to promote acoustic diversity within and between species.more » « less
Diversification of animal vocalizations plays a key role in behavioral evolution and speciation. Vocal organ morphology represents an important source of acoustic variation, yet its small size, complex shape, and absence of homologous landmarks pose major challenges to comparative analyses. Here, we use a geometric morphometric approach based on geometrically homologous landmarks to quantify shape variation of laryngeal cartilages of four rodent genera representing three families. Reconstructed cartilages of the larynx from contrast-enhanced micro-CT images were quantified by variable numbers of three-dimensional landmarks placed on structural margins and major surfaces. Landmark sets were superimposed using generalized Procrustes analysis prior to statistical analysis. Correlations among pairwise Procrustes distances were used to identify the minimum number of landmarks necessary to fully characterize shape variation. We found that the five species occupy distinct positions in morphospace, with variation explained in part by phylogeny, body size, and differences in vocal production mechanisms. Our findings provide a foundation for quantifying the contribution of vocal organ morphology to acoustic diversification.more » « less
Sexual displays are some of the most dramatic and varied behaviors that have been documented. The elaboration of such behaviors often relies on the modification of existing morphology. To understand how display elaboration arises, we analyzed the laryngeal anatomy of three species of mice that vary in the presence and complexity of their vocal displays. Mice and rats have a specialized larynx that enables them to produce both low‐frequency “audible” sounds, perhaps using vocal fold vibration, as well as distinct mechanisms that are thought to enable higher frequency sounds, such as vocal membrane vibration and intralaryngeal whistles. These mechanisms rely on different structures within the larynx. Using histology, we characterized laryngeal anatomy in Alston's singing mouse (
Scotinomys teguina), the northern pygmy mouse ( Baiomys taylori), and the laboratory mouse ( Mus musculus), which produce different types of vocalizations. We found evidence of a vocal membrane in all species, as well as species differences in vocal fold and ventral pouch size. Presence of a vocal membrane in these three species, which are not known to use vocal membrane vibration, suggests that this structure may be widespread among muroid rodents. An expanded ventral pouch in singing and pygmy mice suggests that these mice may use an intralaryngeal whistle to produce their advertisement songs, and that an expanded ventral pouch may enable lower frequencies than laboratory mouse whistle‐produced sounds. Variation in the laryngeal anatomy of rodents fits into a larger pattern across terrestrial vertebrates, where the development and modification of vocal membranes and pouches, or air sacs, are common mechanisms by which vocalizations diversify. Understanding variation in the functional anatomy of relevant organs is the first step in understanding how morphological changes enable novel displays.
To determine the optimal dose‐volume constraint for laryngeal sparing using three commonly employed intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) approaches in patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated to the bilateral neck.
Materials and methods
Thirty patients with stage II‐IVA oropharynx cancers received definitive radiotherapy with split‐field IMRT (SF‐IMRT) to the bilateral neck between 2008 and 2013. Each case was re‐planned using whole‐field IMRT (WF‐IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and plan quality metrics and dose to laryngeal structures was evaluated. Two larynx volumes were defined and compared on the current study: the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) larynx as defined per the RTOG 1016 protocol and the MDACC larynx defined as the components of the larynx bounded by the superior and inferior extent of the thyroid cartilage.
Target coverage, conformity, and heterogeneity indices were similar in all techniques. The RTOG larynx mean dose was lower with WF‐IMRT than SF‐IMRT (22.1 vs 25.8 Gy;
P< 0.01). The MDACC larynx mean dose was 17.5 Gy ± 5.4 Gy with no differences between the 3 techniques. WF‐IMRT and VMAT plans were associated with lower mean doses to the supraglottic larynx (42.1 vs 41.2 vs 54.8 Gy; P< 0.01) and esophagus (18.1 vs 18.2 vs 36 Gy; P< 0.01). Conclusions
Modern whole field techniques can provide effective laryngeal sparing in patients receiving radiotherapy to the bilateral neck for advanced oropharyngeal cancers.
We evaluated laryngeal dose in patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer treated to the bilateral neck using split‐field IMRT (SF‐IMRT), whole‐field IMRT (WF‐IMRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT). All three techniques provided good sparing of laryngeal structures and were able to achieve a mean larynx dose < 33 Gy. There were no significant differences in dose to target structures or non‐laryngeal organs at risk among techniques.
Mammalian nasal capsule development has been described in only a few cross‐sectional age series, rendering it difficult to infer developmental mechanisms that influence adult morphology. Here we examined a sample of Leschenault's rousette fruit bats (
Rousettus leschenaultii) ranging in age from embryonic to adult ( n= 13). We examined serially sectioned coronal histological specimens and used micro‐computed tomography scans to visualize morphology in two older specimens. We found that the development of the nasal capsule in Rousettusproceeds similarly to many previously described mammals, following a general theme in which the central (i.e., septal) region matures into capsular cartilage before peripheral regions, and rostral parts of the septum and paries nasi mature before caudal parts. The ossification of turbinals also generally follows a rostral to the caudal pattern. Our results suggest discrete mechanisms for increasing complexity of the nasal capsule, some of which are restricted to the late embryonic and early fetal timeframe, including fissuration and mesenchymal proliferation. During fetal and early postnatal ontogeny, appositional and interstitial chondral growth of cartilage modifies the capsular template. Postnatally, appositional bone growth and pneumatization render greater complexity to individual structures and spaces. Future studies that focus on the relative contribution of each mechanism during development may draw critical inferences how nasal morphology is reflective of, or deviates from the original fetal template. A comparison of other chiropterans to nasal development in Rousettuscould reveal phylogenetic patterns (whether ancestral or derived) or the developmental basis for specializations relating to respiration, olfaction, or laryngeal echolocation.