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Parametric analysis of pitch angle scattering and losses of relativistic electrons by oblique EMIC wavesThis study analyzes the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on relativistic electron scattering and losses in the Earth’s outer radiation belt. EMIC emissions are commonly observed in the inner magnetosphere and are known to reach high amplitudes, causing significant pitch angle changes in primarily > 1 MeV electrons via cyclotron resonance interactions. We run test-particle simulations of electrons streaming through helium band waves with different amplitudes and wave normal angles and assess the sensitivity of advective and diffusive scattering behaviors to these two parameters, including the possibility of very oblique propagation. The numerical analysis confirms the importance of harmonic resonances for oblique waves, and the very oblique waves are observed to efficiently scatter both co-streaming and counter-streaming electrons. However, strong finite Larmor radius effects limit the scattering efficiency at high pitch angles. Recently discussed force-bunching effects and associated strong positive advection at low pitch angles are, surprisingly, shown to cause no decrease in the phase space density of precipitating electrons, and it is demonstrated that the transport of electrons into the loss cone balances out the scattering out of the loss cone. In the case of high-amplitude obliquely propagating waves, weak but non-negligible losses are detected well below themore »
Resonance broadening effect for relativistic electron interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves
Relativistic electron scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is one of the most effective mechanisms for >1 MeV electron flux depletion in the Earth's radiation belts. Resonant electron interaction with EMIC waves is traditionally described by quasi-linear diffusion equations, although spacecraft observations often report EMIC waves with intensities sufficiently large to trigger nonlinear resonant interaction with electrons. An important consequence of such nonlinear interaction is the resonance broadening effect due to high wave amplitudes. In this study, we quantify this resonance broadening effect in electron pitch-angle diffusion rates. We show that resonance broadening can significantly increase the pitch-angle range of EMIC-scattered electrons. This increase is especially important for [Formula: see text] MeV electrons, where, without the resonance broadening, only those near the loss cone (with low fluxes) can resonate with EMIC waves.
Tens to hundreds of keV electron precipitation driven by kinetic Alfvén waves during an electron injectionElectron injections are critical processes associated with magnetospheric substorms, which deposit significant electron energy into the ionosphere. Although wave scattering of <10 keV electrons during injections has been well studied, the link between magnetotail electron injections and energetic (≥100 keV) electron precipitation remains elusive. Using conjugate observations between the ELFIN and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) missions, we present evidence of tens to hundreds of keV electron precipitation to the ionosphere potentially driven by kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) associated with magnetotail electron injections and magnetic field gradients. Test particle simulations adapted to observations show that dipolarization-front magnetic field gradients and associated ∇B drifts allow Doppler-shifted Landau resonances between the injected electrons and KAWs, producing electron spatial scattering across the front which results in pitch-angle decreases and subsequent precipitation. Test particle results show that such KAW-driven precipitation can account for ELFIN observations below ∼300 keV.
In the present study, we explore the observational characteristics of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) wave propagation from the source region to the ground. We use magnetometers aboard Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES) 13, the geosynchronous orbit satellite at 75°W, and at Sanikiluaq ground station (SNK, 79.14°W and 56.32°N in geographic coordinates, and L ∼ 6.0 in a dipole magnetic field) which is located in northern Canada. Using these magnetically conjugate observatories, simultaneous EMIC wave observations are carried out. We found a total of 295 coincident and 248 non-coincident EMIC wave events between GOES 13 and the SNK station. Our statistical analysis reveals that the coincident events are predominantly observed on the dayside. The wave normal angles are slightly higher for the non-coincident events than for coincident events. However, the coincidence of the waves is mostly governed by the intensity and duration of the wave. This is confirmed by the geomagnetic environment which shows higher auroral electrojet (AE) and Kp indices for the coincident events. We also found that some events show high-frequency (f > 0.4 Hz) wave filtering. The statistics of the high-frequency filtered and non-filtered wave events show that there are clear magnetic local time (MLT) and F10.7 indexmore »
This paper presents observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from multiple data sources during the four Geospace Environment Modeling challenge events in 2013 selected by the Geospace Environment Modeling Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling focus group: 17 and 18 March (stormtime enhancement), 31 May to 2 June (stormtime dropout), 19 and 20 September (nonstorm enhancement), and 23–25 September (nonstorm dropout). Observations include EMIC wave data from the Van Allen Probes, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft in the near-equatorial magnetosphere and from several arrays of ground-based search coil magnetometers worldwide, as well as localized ring current proton precipitation data from low-altitude Polar Operational Environmental Satellite spacecraft. Each of these data sets provides only limited spatial coverage, but their combination shows consistent occurrence patterns and reveals some events that would not be identified as significant using near-equatorial spacecraft alone. Relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron flux observations, phase space density data, and pitch angle distributions based on data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope and Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instruments on the Van Allen Probes during these events show two cases during which EMIC waves are likely to have played an important rolemore »