skip to main content

Title: Entanglement-assisted capacity regions and protocol designs for quantum multiple-access channels
Abstract We solve the entanglement-assisted (EA) classical capacity region of quantum multiple-access channels (MACs) with an arbitrary number of senders. As an example, we consider the bosonic thermal-loss MAC and solve the one-shot capacity region enabled by an entanglement source composed of sender-receiver pairwise two-mode squeezed vacuum states. The EA capacity region is strictly larger than the capacity region without entanglement-assistance. With two-mode squeezed vacuum states as the source and phase modulation as the encoding, we also design practical receiver protocols to realize the entanglement advantages. Four practical receiver designs, based on optical parametric amplifiers, are given and analyzed. In the parameter region of a large noise background, the receivers can enable a simultaneous rate advantage of 82.0% for each sender. Due to teleportation and superdense coding, our results for EA classical communication can be directly extended to EA quantum communication at half of the rates. Our work provides a unique and practical network communication scenario where entanglement can be beneficial.
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1907918 1920742
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
npj Quantum Information
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Communication networks have multiple users, each sending and receiving messages. A multiple access channel (MAC) models multiple senders transmitting to a single receiver, such as the uplink from many mobile phones to a single base station. The optimal performance of a MAC is quantified by a capacity region of simultaneously achievable communication rates. We study the two-sender classical MAC, the simplest and best-understood network, and find a surprising richness in both a classical and quantum context. First, we find that quantum entanglement shared between senders can substantially boost the capacity of a classical MAC. Second, we find that optimal performance of a MAC with bounded-size inputs may require unbounded amounts of entanglement. Third, determining whether a perfect communication rate is achievable using finite-dimensional entanglement is undecidable. Finally, we show that evaluating the capacity region of a two-sender classical MAC is in fact NP-hard.

  2. Quantum cryptography provides absolute security against an all-powerful eavesdropper (Eve). However, in practice Eve's resources may be restricted to a limited aperture size so that she cannot collect all paraxial light without alerting the communicating parties (Alice and Bob). In this paper we study a quantum wiretap channel in which the connection from Alice to Eve is lossy, so that some of the transmitted quantum information is inaccessible to both Bob and Eve. For a pureloss channel under such restricted eavesdropping, we show that the key rates achievable with a two-mode squeezed vacuum state, heterodyne detection, and public classical communication assistance-given by the Hashing inequality-can exceed the secret key distillation capacity of the channel against an omnipotent eavesdropper. We report upper bounds on the key rates under the restricted eavesdropping model based on the relative entropy of entanglement, which closely match the achievable rates. For the pure-loss channel under restricted eavesdropping, we compare the secret-key rates of continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) based on Gaussian-modulated coherent states and heterodyne detection with the discrete variable (DV) decoystate BB84 QKD protocol based on polarization qubits encoded in weak coherent laser pulses.
  3. Experimental limitations such as optical loss and noise have prevented entanglement-enhanced measurements from demonstrating a significant quantum advantage in sensitivity. Holland-Burnett entangled states can mitigate these limitations and still present a quantum advantage in sensitivity. Here we model a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal loss, detector efficiency, and external phase noise and without pure entanglement. This model features a practical fiber source that transforms the two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) into Holland-Burnett entangled states. We predict that a phase sensitivity 28% beyond the shot noise limit is feasible with current technology. Simultaneously, a TMSV source can provide about 25 times more photon flux than other entangled sources. This system will make fiber-based quantum-enhanced sensing accessible and practical for remote sensing and probing photosensitive materials.
  4. Bosonic channels describe quantum-mechanically many practical communication links such as optical, microwave, and radiofrequency. We investigate the maximum rates for the bosonic multiple access channel (MAC) in the presence of thermal noise added by the environment and when the transmitters utilize Gaussian state inputs. We develop an outer bound for the capacity region for the thermal-noise lossy bosonic MAC. We additionally find that the use of coherent states at the transmitters is capacity-achieving in the limits of high and low mean input photon numbers. Furthermore, we verify that coherent states are capacity-achieving for the sum rate of the channel. In the non-asymptotic regime, when a global mean photon-number constraint is imposed on the transmitters, coherent states are the optimal Gaussian state. Surprisingly however, the use of single-mode squeezed states can increase the capacity over that afforded by coherent state encoding when each transmitter is photon number constrained individually.
  5. Abstract

    The nature of dark matter is unknown and calls for a systematical search. For axion dark matter, such a search relies on finding feeble random noise arising from the weak coupling between dark matter and microwave haloscopes. We model such process as a quantum channel and derive the fundamental precision limit of noise sensing. An entanglement-assisted strategy based on two-mode squeezed vacuum is thereby demonstrated optimal, while the optimality of a single-mode squeezed vacuum is found limited to the lossless case. We propose a “nulling” measurement (squeezing and photon counting) to achieve the optimal performances. In terms of the scan rate, even with 20-decibel of strength, single-mode squeezing still underperforms the vacuum limit which is achieved by photon counting on vacuum input; while the two-mode squeezed vacuum provides large and close-to-optimum advantage over the vacuum limit, thus more exotic quantum resources are no longer required. Our results highlight the necessity of entanglement assistance and microwave photon counting in dark matter search.