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Title: Pendulum beams: optical modes that simulate the quantum pendulum
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Award ID(s):
2011937 1506321
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Optics
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Andrews, David L. ; Galvez, Enrique J. ; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina (Ed.)
    The similarity between the 2D Helmholtz equation in elliptical coordinates and the Schr¨odinger equation for the simple mechanical pendulum inspires us to use light to mimic this quantum system. When optical beams are prepared in Mathieu modes, their intensity in the Fourier plane is proportional to the quantum mechanical probability for the pendulum. Previous works have produced a two-dimensional pendulum beam that oscillates as a function of time through the superpositions of Mathieu modes with phases proportional to pendulum energies. Here we create a three-dimensional pendulum wavepacket made of a superposition of Helical Mathieu-Gaussian modes, prepared in such a way that the components of the wave-vectors along the propagation direction are proportional to the pendulum energies. The resulting pattern oscillates or rotates as it propagates, in 3D, with the propagation coordinate playing the role of time. We obtained several different propagating beam patterns for the unbound-rotor and the bound-swinging pendulum cases. We measured the beam intensity as a function of the propagation distance. The integrated beam intensity along elliptical angles plays the role of quantum pendulum probabilities. Our measurements are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.
  2. Abstract This article describes the effects of gravity on the response of systems of identical, cyclically arranged, centrifugal pendulum vibration absorbers (CPVAs) fitted to a rotor spinning about a vertical axis. CPVAs are passive devices composed of movable masses suspended on a rotor, suspended such that they reduce torsional vibrations at a given engine order. Gravitational effects acting on the absorbers can be important for systems spinning at relatively low rotation speeds, for example, during engine idle conditions. The main goal of this study is to predict the response of a CPVA/rotor system in the presence of gravity. A linearized model that includes the effects of gravity and an order n torque acting on the rotor is analyzed by exploiting the cyclic symmetry of the system. The results show that a system of N absorbers responds in one or more groups, where the absorbers in each group have identical waveforms but shifted phases. The nature of the waveforms can have a limiting effect on the absorber operating envelope. The number of groups is shown to depend on the engine order n and the ratio N/n. It is also shown that there are special resonant effects if the engine order ismore »n = 1 or n = 2, the latter of which is particularly important in applications. In these cases, the response of the absorbers has a complicated dependence on the relative levels of the applied torque and gravity. In addition, it is shown that for N > 1, the rotor response is not affected by gravity, at least to leading order, due to the cyclic symmetry of the gravity effects. The linear model and the attendant analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations of the full nonlinear equations of motion.« less